Motivation

STUDY
PLAY
Motive
Specific need that triggers a drive and results in goal directed behavior
Emotion
a feeling that underlies behavior but does not predict behavior well
instincts
Complex behaviors that are the similar across a species (Humans do not have them)
needs
Something you require or want
drives
The push to achieve a need
Primary Drives -Hunger Thirst and Sex (biological)

Secondary Drives - Success, Wealth, Fame (learned drives)
homeostasis
Balance/equilibrium
incentives
Cues in your environment that initiate a need->drive
intrinsic motivation
The reward for the behavior comes from within. You do the behavior because just doing it is fun or the feeling of pride inside of you motivates you to do it. This type of motivation is stronger and will last longer.
extrinsic motivation
You do the behavior to get some other reward. You go to work not for the joy of that job, but to get money. You study not to make yourself a better human, but to get a grade. This is type of motivation is weaker and will fail you eventually.
Drive Reduction Theory
Your body has a need that causes a state of tension resulting in a drive to reduce that tension. You will meet this drive until you reach equilibrium

+explains primary drives
-fails to explain secondary drives
Arousal Theory
At any give moment, you will seek out the excitement/interest (optimum arousal) that is best for your current mood.

+explains secondary drives
-not as good for primary drives
Yerkes Dodson Law
An outgrowth of Arousal Theory
To improve your performance, keep a lower arousal during complex tasks and keep a higher arousal during simple tasks.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Self-Actualization
Esteem Needs
Belongingness and Love Needs
Saftey Needs
Physicological Needs
Contact
Humans need physical contact - See research by Harry Harlow.
Aggression
hostile or violent behavior or attitudes toward another; readiness to attack or confront.
Achievement
Work Orientation
Mastery
Competitiveness -
Affiliation
You need peeps. Similar to Maslow's Belongingness and Love Needs.
Freudian Explanation of Aggression
Aggression is an innate drive that builds up and must be released.
Frustration
Frustrations (or delays) in our lives is a big source of aggression.
Thirst
Your hypothalamus monitors fluid levels in your cells and initiates a thirst drive if those levels are too low.
Biological causes of Hunger
Body - stomach contractions
Body Chemicals - High levels of gluclose cause hunger / Low Levels of insulin cause hunger / Low levels of Leptin cause hunger
Brain - lateral hypothalamus causes hunger - the word itself looks hungry thanks to all those skinny l's
Ventromedial hypothalamus tells you to stop eating - the word itself is bigger and doesn't need to eat more.
Environmental causes of Hunger
Incentives!
Cultural influences to Hunger
Spicy food in cultures that are closer to the equator

Americans tend to eat dinner at 6 while Italians eat 9-10

American fashion industry's obsession with thinness has seeped into the culture via toxic media
Learning influences to Hunger
Your parents model eating habits.

Negative eating behavior may be reinforced with feelings of control and or praise from others.
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