20 terms

Ch. 4 Transtheoretical Model

TTM
STUDY
PLAY
Maintenance stage
Stage of change in which the person has maintained the change behavior for a period of time, usually considered as six or more months
Precontemplation stage
Stage of change in which a person is not considering change in the forseeable future, usually defined as the next six months
Preparation stage
Stage of change in which a person is planning for change in the immediate future, usually defined as in the next month
Reinforcement management
A behavioral process of change in the transtheorectical model that utilizes reinforcements and punishments for taking steps in a particular direction
Self- efficacy
The confidence that a person has in his or her ability to pursue a behavior
Self- liberation
A behavioral process of change in the transtheorectical model that entails belief that one can change and a commitment and recommitment to act on that change
Self- re-evaluation
An experimental process of change in the transtheoretical theory that involves both affective and cognitive components and includes a person's assessment of his or her self- image with the new behavior
Social Liberation
An experimental process of change in the transtheorectical theory that refers to an increase in social opportunities or alternatives
Stages of change
Discrete phases in the transtheoretical model through which a person transits when undergoing change of a behavior. The stages consist of precontemplation, contemplation, action, and maintenance
Stimulus control
A behavioral process of change in the transtheoretical model that involves modifying the environment to increase cues for healthy behavior and decrease cues for unhealthy behavior
Temptation
The urge to engage in unhealthy behavior when confronted with a difficult situation
Termination
The point in the transtheoretical model at which the person has completely quit the habit, has no temptation to relapse, and is fully self- efficacious to continue with the change
Transtheoretical model (TTM)
A model of behavior change that posits that people move through five stages of change, from precontemplation (not thinking about change) to maintenance (acquisition of the healthy behavior), in which they are aided through 10 processes of change and the constructs of decisional balance, self- efficacy, and overcoming temptation
Describe the historical genesis of the transtheoretical model.
-based on smoking behaviors
-late 1970s: James Prochaska from the university of Rhode Island undertook a task to review various theories behind psychotherapy
Discuss the five stages of behavior change in the TTM.
1. precontemplation: no intent to take action/ change behavior
2. Contemplation: intention to change, maybe within the next 6 months
3. Preparation: intention to take action in the immediate future, say in the next month
4. Action: A specific, relevant modification in behavior is made in the past 6 months
5. Maintenance: Maintain change, prevent relapse, 6 or more months
6. Termination: No longer "succumbs to temptation" and has self- efficacy about maintenance
List the 10 key processes of change in the TTM
1. Consciousness raising
2. Dramatic relief
3. Environmental behavior
4. self- re-evaluation
5. self liberation
6. social liberation
7.counterconditioning
8. helping relationships
9. contingency or reinforcement management
10. stimulus control
How can stimulus control be modified?
- Avoidance
- Environmental reengineering by removing cues for unhealthy behavior
- self- help groups that provide cues for healthier behavior
Differentiate between self- liberation and social liberation.
Self liberation is belief that one can change and commitment/ re commitment to act on that change while Social liberation is an increase in social alternatives
Discuss the five phases for planning interventions based on the TTM.
1. Recruitment phase- persuade a large number of people to join the program
2. Retention phase- efforts must be taken to retain people who join the program
3. Progress phase- efforts must be taken to help people progress during and after the intervention
4. Process phase- efforts must be made to help participants move from one stage to another and processes of change must be applied
5. Outcome- the end results are measured
Discuss the limitations of the TTM
- stages in the model are arbitrary and to classify a population in different stages serves little utility
- stage- matched behavior specific process parsimony to be strived
- comparative studies of stage- matched versus non-stage matched interventions
- applications to vulnerable subgroups of population
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