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Terms in this set (39)
6CO2+12H2O + light → C6H12O6 + 6O2 + 6H2O,
What is the primary light-gathering pigment in plants?
The fluid of the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane; involved in the synthesis of organic molecules from carbon dioxide and water.
Process by which plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
An organelle found only in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water.
small openings on the underside of a leaf through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move
An organism that obtains organic food molecules without eating other organisms or substances derived from other organisms. Autotrophs use energy from the sun or from the oxidation of inorganic substances to make organic molecules from inorganic ones.
Organisms that make organic food molecules from CO2, H2O, and other inorganic raw materials: a plant, alga, or autotrophic bacterium. also convert sun, CO2, and H2O into Glucose
land plants, algae, cyanobacteria
found in stroma; arranged in stacks called grana.
Contain Chlorophyll which absorbs solar energy.
absorb light during light dependent reaction.
Thousands of chloroplasts
Stacks of membranes inside a chloroplast that contain chlorophyll. Also look like piles of seeds
-takes place in thylakoids
-water and sunlight needed
-chlorophyll absorbs energy
-energy transported along thylakoid membrane and do light-indepent reactions
Light Dependent Equation
Water + oxygen + ATP+NADPH2
does not require light
stage of photosynthesis during which carbon dioxide is used to produce glucose
Another name for the Calvin Cycle
action occurs in the stroma, reaction of photosynthesis that does not require light but uses energy produced and stored during the light reaction to make glucose
Dark Reaction Equation
ATP + NADPH + CO2 ---> C6H12O6
reactions of photosynthesis in which energy from ATP and NADPH is used to build high-energy compounds such as sugar.
phoshoglyceraldehyde, glyceraldehyde phosphate; a three-carbon molecule formed in the second step of the Calvin cycle that can leave the cycle and be used to make other organic compounds.Amino acids, Lipids, Carboydrates
phosphoglycerate; a three-carbon molecule formed in the first step of the Calvin cycle, phosphoglyceric acid;
Is the starting material of glucose and fructose.
Glucose and fructose make Sucrose
A disaccharide composed of glucose and fructose.
Travels to other parts of the plant
The light-harvesting unit in photosynthesis, located on the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast and consisting of the antenna complex, the reaction-center chlorophyll a, and the primary electron acceptor. There are two types of photosystems, I and II; they absorb light best at different wavelengths., within the thylakoid membranes, there are chlorophyll molecules clumped together to form _______________ that act as antennas to capture light energy
(Functions 2nd) Reaction Center is P700(far red), Uses Light to excite electrons and converts NADP to NAPDH, It has light dependent reactions, also splits water to make Oxygen.
the other pigments within an antenna complex that gather light energy and send it to the reaction center.
Several 100 of them
Molecules plus a reaction center
colored chemical compounds that absorb light
Packets of light energy. although light behaves as thought it travels in waves, certain properties of light suggest that it also travels in packets of light energy called photons.
Made of different wavelength
That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum detected as various colors by the human eye, ranging in wavelength from about 380 nm to about 750 nm.
Their absorption spectrum
pigments found in chloroplast absorbing various portions of visible light
contain a variety of pigment
red, orange, yellow, green
A green pigment found in the chloroplasts of plants, algae, and some bacteria
the key light-capturing pigment molecule in chloroplasts, strongly absorbs violet, blue, and red light, but reflects green, thus given green leave their color
Absorbs all the colors Chlorophyll A does not absorb
A red, orange, or yellow pigment, found in chloroplasts, that serves as an accessory light-gathering molecule in thylakoid photo systems.
why do leaves appear Green
because chlorophyll reflects and transmits green light
Alternate pathways of photosynthesis
Calvin Cycle most common among autotrophs called C3 plants.
Plants in hot dry climate use alternate pathway to fix carbon and transfer it to Calvin cycle
cells that control the opening and closing of stomata.
Can lose H2O through stomata, so it closes during hottest part of day.
a plant in which the calvin cycle is preceded by reactions that incorporate CO2 into a four-carbon compound, the end product of which supplies CO2 for the Calvin cycle
Corn, sugarcane, Crabgrass
ones that open their stomata during the night.CO2 fixed at night
Closed all day
Factors that affect photosynthesis
Water, temperature, light intensity, level of air pollution, amount of CO2 available
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