a social position that we voluntarily attain, to a considerable degree, as the result of our own efforts
a social position that is assigned to us from birth or that we assume later in life, regardless of our wishes or abilities
a hierarchical administrative system with formal rules and procedures used to manage organizations.
an approach to the study of social interaction that uses the metaphor of social life as a theater
a form of uncritical thinking in which people reinforce a consensus rather than ask serious questions or thoroughly analyze the issue at hand
the idea that social contact occurs at a higher rate between people who are similar than it does between people who are different
a social group with which a person identifies and toward which he or she feels positively; members have a collective sense of "us"
iron law of oligarchy
the eventual and inevitable consolidation of power at the top of bureaucratic organizations
a social position that is overwhelmingly significant, powerfully influences a person's social experience, and typically overshadows all the other social positions that person may occup.
factors that exist outside the organization but that ptentially affect its operation
secondary groups that have a degree of formal structure and are formed to accomplish particular tasks
a social group toward which a person feels negatively, considering its members to be inferiors, or "them"
people who have regular contact, enduring relationships, and a significant emotional attachment to each other
the problem that occurs when the expectations associated with a single role compete with each other
the process of deskilling ordinary workers and increasing workplace efficiency through calculated study
people who interact in a relatively impersonal way, usually to carry out some specific task
collections of people who interact regularly with one another and who are aware of their status as a group
exaggerated, distorted, or untrue generalizations about categories of people that do not acknowledge individual variation