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chapter: 7 interaction, groups, and organizations (sociology)

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achieved status
a social position that we voluntarily attain, to a considerable degree, as the result of our own efforts
ascribed status
a social position that is assigned to us from birth or that we assume later in life, regardless of our wishes or abilities
bureaucracy
a hierarchical administrative system with formal rules and procedures used to manage organizations.
dramaturgy
an approach to the study of social interaction that uses the metaphor of social life as a theater
groupthink
a form of uncritical thinking in which people reinforce a consensus rather than ask serious questions or thoroughly analyze the issue at hand
homophily
the idea that social contact occurs at a higher rate between people who are similar than it does between people who are different
in-group
a social group with which a person identifies and toward which he or she feels positively; members have a collective sense of "us"
intersubjectivity
a common understanding between people about knowledge, reality, or an experience
iron law of oligarchy
the eventual and inevitable consolidation of power at the top of bureaucratic organizations
master status
a social position that is overwhelmingly significant, powerfully influences a person's social experience, and typically overshadows all the other social positions that person may occup.
organizational environment
factors that exist outside the organization but that ptentially affect its operation
organizations
secondary groups that have a degree of formal structure and are formed to accomplish particular tasks
out-group
a social group toward which a person feels negatively, considering its members to be inferiors, or "them"
primary groups
people who have regular contact, enduring relationships, and a significant emotional attachment to each other
reference groups
the groups against which we choose to measure ourselves
role conflict
the problem that occurs when the expectations associated with different roles clash
role strain
the problem that occurs when the expectations associated with a single role compete with each other
roles
the sets of expected behaviors that are associated with particular statuses
scientific management
the process of deskilling ordinary workers and increasing workplace efficiency through calculated study
secondary groups
people who interact in a relatively impersonal way, usually to carry out some specific task
social groups
collections of people who interact regularly with one another and who are aware of their status as a group
social networks
the collection of social ties that connect people to each other
status
a position in a social system that can be occupied by an individual
status category
a status that people can hold in common
status hierarchy
a ranking of social positions according to their perceived prestige or honor
status set
the collection of statuses that an individual holds
stereotypes
exaggerated, distorted, or untrue generalizations about categories of people that do not acknowledge individual variation
thomas theorem
the idea that if people define situations as real, they are real in their consequences