General Properties of Connective Tissue

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Isotropic
Homogeneous materials that display the same mechanical behavior no matter the direction in which forces are applied
Anisotropic
Heterogeneous connective tissue behave differently depending on the size and direction of applied forces
Load
a force or forces applied to the structure
Deformation
the product of when a force acts on an object (deformity)
Elongation
produced by a tensile load
Compression
produced by a compressive force
Toe Region
The first region of the load- deformation curve where very little force is required to deform the tissue as the wavy crimp pattern
Elastic region
In the Load- deformation curve where deformation is not permanent
Yield point
In the Load- deformation curve the point at the end of the elastic region the material will no longer immediately return to its original state
Plastic region
In the Load- deformation curve after load is removed material will not recover its original length ( permanent deformation)
Stress
The force per cross sectional unit of material
Strain
The percentage change in the length or cross-section of a structure or material
Tensile Force
If two applied forces act along the same line but in opposite directions
Compressive Loading
If two applied forces act in line toward each other
Shear Loading
If two applied forces parallel and are applied in opposite directions but are not in line with one another
Torsional loading
Forces applied perpendicular to the long axis of a structure
Bending Forces
When both tensile and compressive stresses and strains are created
Viscoelasticity
Combo of elastic and Viscosity
A fluid property
Elasticity
Refers to the materials ability to return to its original length or shape after the removal of the deforming load
Viscosity
Refers to a materials resistance to flow
Creep
A Progressive strain of a material when exposed to a constant load over time
Stress- Relaxation
The property in which if a tissue is stretched to a fixed length while the force required to maintain this length is measured, the force needed will decrease over time
Hysteresis
The property in which not all of the energy gained as a result of the lengthening work (force x distance) is recovered during the exchange from energy to shortening work. Some energy is lost as heat
Strain- Rate Sensitivity
The property that which when a load is applied rapidly the tissue is stiffer and a larger peak force can be applied to the tissue than if the load was applied slowly
Hoop Stresses
Is a property of collagen - are created in the superficial collagen network as the compressed PGs and water push against the collagen fibers