Unit 3 Vocabulary

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Terms in this set (...)

acculturation
The less dominant culture adopts some of the traits of the more influential one.
animism
The belief that inanimate objects and natural events have spirits.
artifacts
Concrete human creations
assimilation
The dominant culture completely absorbs the less dominant one.
Baha`i
A relatively new faith that was founded in 1844 by Siyyid 'Ali Muhammad. Most followers live in Iran.
behaviors
The actions that people take.
beliefs
Specific statements that people hold to be true, and they are almost always based on values.
bilingualsim
The ability to communicate in two languages.
Buddhism
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Confucianism
Provides a code of moral conduct based on humaness and family loyalty.
contagious diffusion
When almost all individuals and areas outward from the source region are affected.
creole
When a pidgin becomes the first language of a group of speakers.
cultural determinism
Emphasizes human culture as ultimately more important than physical environment in shaping human actions. They views human culture as the milder of the physical environment.
cultural diffusion
A way of diffusion where is spread first to the areas surrounding the hearths then so on and so on.
cultural ecology
The field that studies the relationship
cultural geography
The transformation of the land and the ways that humans interact with the environment.
cultural hearths
The ares where civilizations first began that radiated the customs, innovations, and ideologies that culturally transformed the world
cultural landscape
The modification of the natural landscape by human activities.
cultural relativism
The practice of of evaluating a culture by its own standards.
cultural transmission
The process by which on generation passes culture to the next.
culture complex
Consists of common values, beliefs, behavior, and artifacts that make a group in an area distinct from others.
culture region
AN area marked by a culture that distinguishes it from other regions.
culture system
A group of interconnected culture complexes.
culture trait
A single attribute of a culture.
Daoism
Holds that human happiness lies in maintaining proper harmony with nature.
dialect
Regional variants of a standard language.
diasporas
Forced exodus from their lands of origin.
Durkeim`s sacred and profane
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Eastern Orhtodox
About 10% of all Christians are Eastern Orthodox, a branch that officially split from Roman Catholicism in the 11th century C.E. It is strong in Eastern Europe and Russia.
environmental determinism
The physical environment, especially the climate and terrain, actively shapes cultures, so that human responses are almost completely molded by the environment.
ethnic religion
Appeal primarily to one group of people living in one place.
enthocentrism
The practice of judging another culture by the standards of one`s own culture.
extinct language
Languages that were once in use, but are no longer spoken or read in daily activities by anyone in the world.
folk culture region
When many people who live in a land space share at least some of the same folk customs.
folk life
Composite culture both material and non-material, that shapes the lives of folk societies
geographic region
A culture region represent an entire culture system that intertwines with its locational and environmental circumstances.
Hagerstrand, Torste
A famous geographer that also wrote about cultural diffusion.
hierarchical diffusion
When ideas and artifacts spread first between larger places or prominent people and only later to smaller places or less prominent people.
Hinduism
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humanism
Emphasizes the ability of human beings to guide their own lives.
independent inventions
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Indo-European language family
The most commonly cited language family since languages in those family are spoken by about half of the world`s people.
Islam
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isogloss
Boundaries within which words are spoken.
Judaism
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language
A systematic means of communicating ideas and feeling through the use of signs, gestures, marks, or vocal sounds.
language families
Languages are grouped into families with a shared or distant origin.
language sub-family
...
lingua franca
An established language that comes to be spoken and understood over a large area.
linguistic fragmentation
A conidition in which many languages are spoken, each by a relatively small number of people.
linguistic geography
The study of speech areas and their local variations by mapping word choices, pronunciations, or grammatical constructions.
Mahayana
56% of Buddhists are this, or "Big Wheel", characterized by broad incorporation of ideas and gods from other religions as it spread into East Asia.
Marxism
Transformed communism into a central ideology in many areas during the twentieth century.
material culture
Culture that includes a wide range of human creations called artifacts.
migrant diffusion
The spread of cultural traits is slow enough that they weaken in the area of origin by the time they reach other areas.
monotheistic religion
Believing in only one God.
multilinguilsm
The ability to communicate in more than two languages.
non-material culture
Consists of abstract concepts of valuees, beliefs and behavior.
norms
The rules and expectations by which a society guides the behavior of its members
official language
The language endorsed and recognized by the government as the one that everyone should know and use.
pidgin
An amalgamation of languages that borrows words from several.
popular culture
Is found in large heterogeneous societies that are bonded by a common culture despite the many differences among the people that share it.
Protestants
About 25% of the world`s Christians are Protestant. Split from the Catholic church in the 16th century.
regional identity
Anything that is involved with that region i.e. a mascot.
religion: branches, denominations, sects
Branch: Large and basic divisions within a religion
Denomination: Divisions of branches that unite local groups in a single administrative body.
Sect: Relatively small groups that do not affiliate with the more mainstream denomiations.
relocation diffusion
Individuals or populations migrating from the source areas physically carry the innovation or idea to new areas.
Roman Catholics
About 50% of the worlds Christians are Roman Catholic, with the concentrations in Latin America, Quebec, Central Africa, and Southern and Eastern Europe.
Sauer, Carl
Focused on cultural diffusion and wrote a book title Agricultural Origins and Dispersals in 1952.
shamanism
An ethnic religion in which people follow their shaman who is believed to be in contact with the supernatural.
Shiite
Make up about 16% of all Musliims, and most are located in only a few countries of the Middle East. Nearly 40% of all Shiites live in Iran, 15% in Pakistan, 10% in Iraq, and 10% in Turkey, Azerbaijan, Afghanistan, and Yemen.
Sikhism
Stresses continual improvement and movement toward perfection by taking individual responsibility for their actiod
standard language
languages that are recognized by the government and the intellectual elite as the norm for use in schools, government, media, and other aspects of public life.
stimulus diffusion
A basic idea, though not to the specific trait itself, stimulates imitative behavior within a population.
Sunni
Comprise 83% of all Muslims and is the largest branch in the Middle East and Asia. The country with the largest concentration of Sunni Muslims is Indonesia.
symbolic landscape
All landscapes can be seen as symbolic as they had accumulated various meanings over times.
symbols
Express personal identity in many different ways.
syncretism
The process of the fusion of old and new.
Tantrayana
Only about 6% or Buddhist follow this branch, the "Vehicle of the Text". with its emphasis on magic as well as different meditation techniques. it is found primarily in Tibet and Mongolia.
Theraveda
about 38% of Buddhist are this, characterized by a stricter adherence to the original teachings of Buddha. This branch is strong in Southeast Asia.
time-distance decay
The influence of the cultural traits weakens as time and distance increase.
toponymy
The study of place names, a special interest of linguistic geography.
traditional religion
An integral part of a local culture and society.
transculturation
When two-way flows of culture reflect a more equal exchange of cultural traits.
universalizing religion
They attempt to be global in its appeal to all people, wherever they may live in the world, not just to those in one location. The three main universalizing religions are Christianity, Islam, and Buddhism.