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used in math and science; something that CAN be changed


something that CANNOT change

manipulate/independent variable

one factor changed by the person doing the experiment; "manipulated variable"

response/dependent variable

factors being measured in an experiment; changes in response to the changes in the independent/manipulated variable; also known as the "response variable"


factors that stay the SAME in an experiment

What does a scientist do after she manipulates (changes) the manipulated (independent) variable?


Where is the manipulated/independent variable usually plotted?

On the X-axis of a graph

response/dependent variable

dependent variable; responds to changes in other variables in the experiment; the factor being measured in an experiment (what is observed AFTER the experiment)

manipulated/independent variable

independent variable; the one factor that is changed by the person doing the experiment (what we know before the experiment)

Where is the dependent/response variable usually plotted?

On the Y-axis of a graph

controlled variables

quantities that a scientist wants to remain the same (constant); must be observed as CAREFULLY as the response variables

Experimental Scientific Method

a set of scientific processes that scientists use to answer questions and solves problems in the world around them (cause/effect relationships)


an investigation designed to find out how variables affect outcomes or results


anything that can change in an experiment that might affect the outcome

Controlled Experiment

an experiment in which ONE variable is changed and the outcome is compared to a standard (control)

Standard or Control

the basic procedure used in a controlled experiment, before changing any of the variables


an educated guess/prediction based on information and experience


pieces of information collected in an experiment/investigation

Repeated Trials

Experimental tests done more than once.


a statement that describes what an experiment/investigation showed, based on observations and data

Two-Coordinate Graph

shows the outcome of a series of experiments when a variable is changed by increment (steps)


the horizontal axis on a graph (independent/manipulated variable)


the vertical axis on a graph (dependent/response variable)


a mass hung from a fixed point, free to swing back and forth when put into motion (grandfather clock, swing)


any motion of an object that periodically repeats (example: one full swing of the pendulum=one cycle)

Mean or Average

usual; typical; MIDDLE


a set of parts that are related in some way and work together (a part can be isolated in a controlled experiment)

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