100 terms

Biology Chapter 8

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Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
a chemical compound cells use to store and release energy
Adenine, sugar ribose, and three phosphate groups
What does ATP consist of?
Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP)
Cells store energy by adding a phosphate group to __________________ molecules.
Release
Cells ____________ energy from ATP molecules by subtracting a phosphate group.
Heterotrophs
Get food by consuming other organisms.
Autotrophs
Use the energy in sunlight to make their own food.
Photosynthesis
The process that uses light energy to produce food molecules.
Energy
The ability to do work
Adenosine Triphosphate
The main chemical compound cells use for energy is ____________________.
Ribosome
A 5-carbon sugar molecule that is part of an ATP molecule.
Phosphate
The ____________ of ATP are the key to its ability to store and supply energy.
Breaks
ATP releases energy when it ____________ bonds between its phosphate groups.
A few seconds
Most cells only store enough ATP for ____________________ of activity.
Active transport; synthesis of proteins
What are two ways in which cells use the energy temporarily stored in ATP?
They get energy from foods
Energy is needed to add a third phosphate group to ADP to make ATP. What is the cell's source of energy?
True
All heterotrophs must eat food to get energy. (true/false)
True
Autotrophs do not need to eat food because they make food. (true/false)
True
The energy in food originally came from ATP. (true/false)
false; Putting together
The term photosynthesis mean "pulling apart with light" in Greek. (true/false)
Autotrophs
make own food
Autotrophs
All life on earth depend on ________________.
Autotrophs
Use energy from the sun.
Heterotrophs
Obtain food by consuming other living things.
Heterotrophs
Get food from plants.
Light
a form of energy
Sunlight
a mixture of all the different colors of visible light
Pigments
Light absorbing molecules that capture the sun's energy
Chlorophyll
The principal pigment in photosynthetic organisms.
Thylakoids and Stroma
What two things are found in chloroplasts?
Stroma
The fluid portion outside of the thylakoids.
Thylakoids
Saclike photosynthetic membranes that contain chlorophyll and other pigments and are arranged in stacks called grana.
Transport
Electron carriers are used to ______________ the electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules during photosynthesis.
Electron Carriers
used to transport the electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules during photosynthesis.
NADP+
a compound that can accept and hold 2 high energy electrons and 1 hydrogen ion.
Light-Dependent Reactions
require light, light absorbing pigments, and water to form NADPH, ATP, and oxygen.
Light Independent Reactions
Do not use light energy.
Light Independent Reactions
They use carbon dioxide from the atmosphere, NADPH, and ATP to make energy rich carbon compounds.
Wavelengths
The __________________ of light determines its color.
Pigments
Chemicals that absorb light
Reflects
Chlorophyll makes plants look green because it ___________ green light.
Thylakoids
Chloroplasts contain an abundance of saclike photosynthetic membranes called __________________.
Stroma
The fluid portion of the chloroplast located outside the thylakoids.
Boost
The visible light absorbed by chlorophyll _________________ the energy level of the chlorophyll's electrons.
Chlorophyll
Where do the high energy electrons carried by NADPH come from?
carbon dioxide and water
What are the reactants of the photosynthesis reaction?
Oxygen and ATP
What are the products of the light dependent reactions?
stroma
Where do the light-independent reactions occur?
True
Photosystems are clusters of chlorophyll and proteins. (true/false)
Photosystem 2
The light dependent reactions begin when photosystem 1 absorbs light. (true/false)
True
Electrons from water molecules replace the ones lost by photosystem 2. (true/false)
NADPH
ATP is the product of photosystem 1. (true/false)
energy
ATP and NADPH are two types of protein carriers.
H+ passes through ATP synthase causing it to spin. It gives off energy allowing ATP produce.
How does ATP synthase produce ATP?
The energy level goes up
When sunlight excites electrons in chlorophyll, how do the electrons change?
In the thylakoids of the chloroplast
Where do the light dependent reactions take place?
Absorbs light increasing electrons energy level. Then the electrons are passed to the electron transport chain.
What happens in Photosystem 2?
Electrons are passed from protein to protein. As they pass they release energy. They energy is used to pump H+ from the stroma into the thylakoid space.
What happens in the Electron Transport Chain?
Electrons are re-energized by light. NADP+ picks up those electrons and hydrogen ions forming NADPH.
What happens in Photosystem 1?
Hydrogen ions flow from the thylakoid space through the stroma through ATP synthase causing it to spin. It gives off energy allowing ATP produce.
What happens in Hydrogen Ion Movement and ATP Formation?
CO2+NADPH+ATP
What does the Calvin cycle use to produce high energy sugars?
It doesn't require light because it gets its energy from ATP and NADPH
Why are the reactions of the Calvin cycle called light independent reactions?
What is produced is used again.
What makes the Calvin cycle a cycle?
6 H20+6 CO2 ->6 O2+C2 H12 O6
6 water + 6 carbon dioxide -> 6 oxygen + 1 glucose
State the overall equation for photosynthesis.
Light-Dependent reaction and Light-Independent Reaction
What two reactions does photosynthesis have?
02
What is light dependent's waste product?
Light Dependent Reaction
produces NADPH and ATP
NADPH and ATP
What does the Light Dependent Reaction produce?
Stroma
Where is the light dependent reaction located?
High-energy sugars (carbs)
What does the light dependent reaction produce?
Thylakoid membrane
Where does the light dependent reaction take place?
Pigments capture energy from the sunlight
What role do pigments play in the process of photosynthesis?
Photosynthetic capture energy from the sunlight with pigments
Explain the role of light and pigments in photosynthesis.
Sunlight
A mixture of different wavelengths
It is a compound that can accept a pair of high energy electrons and transfer them.
Explain the role of electron carrier molecules in photosynthesis.
ATP can easily release and store energy by breaking and reforming bonds between its phosphate group. This characteristic of ATP makes it exceptionally useful as a basic energy source for all cells.
Why is ATP useful for the cell?
Adenosine Triphosphate
A-p-p-p
ATP
powers the making of proteins.
ATP
good for short term storage.
Plants convert the energy of sunlight into chemical energy.
What happens during the process of photosynthesis?
The reaction uses energy from the sun to produce oxygen. ATP, and NADPH from ADP and NADP+
Describe what happens during the light dependent reaction.
Photosystem 1
Electrons are re-energized by sunlight
Chemiosmosis
The capturing of energy to produce NADPH
Electron Transport Chain
passes the electrons (energy is being released powering the hydrogen ions protein pump)
Photosystems
Made of chlorophyll and proteins
B. plants
Which of the following are autotrophs?
a. Deer
b. Plants
c. leopards
d. mushrooms
b. ATP
The principal chemical compound that living things use to store energy is
a. DNA
b. ATP
c. H20
d. CO2
b. less
The amount of energy stored in a molecule of ATP compared to the amount stored in a molecule of glucose is
a. greater
b. less
c. the same
d. variable, depending on conditions
Heterotrophs obtain food from plants indirectly to get energy. Autotrophs capture the energy of sunlight and store it in the molecules that make up food.
How do heterotrophs and autotrophs differ in the way they obtain energy?
ATP has less energy than glucose but ATP is for immediate energy life.
Compare the amounts of energy stored by ATP and glucose. Which compound is used by the cell as an immediate source of energy?
d. water and carbon dioxide
In addition to light and chlorophyll, photosynthesis requires
a. water and oxygen
b. water and sugars
c. oxygen and carbon dioxide
d. water and carbon dioxide
absorbs green light
The leaves of a plant appear green because chlorophyll ____________________.
photosynthetic organisms capture energy from sunlight with pigments.
What role do plant pigments play in the process of photosynthesis?
Since the potted plant is in an air tight jar it wouldn't be able to breathe and run out of CO2 to produce sugars. The plant wouldn't be able to complete photosynthesis.
Suppose you water a potted plant and place it by a window in a transparent, airtight jar. Predict how the rate of photosynthesis might be affected over the next few days. What might happen if the plant were left there for several weeks? explain.
Light absorption
The first process in the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis is _________________.
NADPH
Which substance from the light dependent reactions of photosynthesis is a source of energy for the Calvin Cycle?
Calvin Cycle
The light independent reactions of photosynthesis are also known as the _______________________.
hydrogen ions
ATP synthase in the chloroplast membrane makes ATP, utilizing the energy of highly concentrated _________________________.
NADP+ accepts and holds two high energy electrons, along with a hydrogen ion.
Explain the role of NADP+ as an energy carrier in photosynthesis.
It allows H+ to pass through the membrane because it expands it. When H+ ions pass through they spin, and ATP synthase binds ADP and a phosphate group to form ATP.
Describe the role of ATP synthase and explain how it works.
Chlorophyll, sunlight, carbon dioxide.
What are the three factors that affect the rate at which photosynthesis occurs?