Key Concepts:

Terms in this set (55)

Meter - Recurring patterns of sounds in a poem. The four types of meter are iambic, trochaic, anapestic, and dactylic.

iambic: "Two roads diverged in a wood, and I,
I took the one less traveled by"
(The Road Not Taken by Robert Frost)

Trochaic: "Shadows pointed towards the pithead:
In the sun the slagheap slept.
Down the lane came men in pitboots
Coughing oath-edged talk and pipe-smoke"
(The Explosion by Philip Larkin)

Anapestic: "'Twas the night before Christmas, when all through the house. Not a creature was stirring, not even a mouse"
('Twas the Night before Christmas by Clement Clarke Moore)

Dactylic: "Just for a handful of silver he left us,
Just for a riband to stick in his coat—
Found the one gift of which fortune bereft us,
Lost all the others she lets us devote"
(The Lost Leader by Robert Browning)

Robert Frost has used iambic meter in these two lines of his poem, The Road Not Taken, using words like "diverged" and "took" so that, to the ears and minds of readers, it can almost sound like a heart beat.

a good example of trochaic meter because of it's use of stressed syllables in words like "oath" and "coughing" to honor the men who had died in a tragic mining accident.

The author uses this type of meter, stressing words like "night" and "creature", to create a fun, happy rhythm for readers as they pour over this delightful book

He uses this type of meter by stressing syllables in words like "handful and "doled" to create a rhythmic effect that helps readers understand the speaker of the poem's emotions as he describes what he dealt with due to the "leader's" betrayal.
Rhythm - The use of words to convey a meaning opposite of the literal meaning (Mr. Majeski The Magnificent).

1) Cosmic Irony - "When the goddess Hera discovered that Zeus had seduced Alcmena and fathered Hercules, she was furious. Hera was fiercely jealous of Zeus's lovers and children and pursued them mercilessly" (http://www.mythencyclopedia.com/Go-Hi/Hercules.html 16-18).

2) Dramatic Irony - ""I think thou dost. And for I know thou 'rt full of love and honesty and weigh'st thy words before thou giv'st them breath" (Shakespeare 70).

3) Verbal Irony - ""I rather recommend buying the children alive and dressing them hot from the knife, as we do roasting pigs"" (Swift 16).

4) Satire - "Whether the nymph shall break Diana's law, or some frail china jar receive a flaw, or stain her honor, or her new brocade" (Pope 348).

Cosmic Irony is when fate, destiny, or the gods/goddesses control and toy with human hopes and expectations. When I read this, I knew that the Greek myth of Hercules was the perfect example of this type of irony. As soon as Hercules was born, Hera had "toyed" with his life many times over the course of his lifetime. She has tried to kill him with two poisonous snakes when he was a baby, caused him to go mad and kill his entire family, and other forms of sufferings and punishments. You could say that it was poor Hercules destiny to suffer a life of torment from the goddess Hera.

The piece of dialogue from William Shakespeare's play, Othello, is a good example of dramatic irony. In this quote, Othello is putting his faith into Lago as being an "honest man". Unknown to Othello, however, Lago is actually plotting against him. Although the audience knows all about his evil plot, Othello just has no clue, until it is too late.

Verbal Irony is a type of irony that whatever is expressed is the complete opposite of what is actually meant. This outspoken quote in Jonathan Swift's novel, A Modest Proposal, is a really good example of this irony. The author talks about ghastly things in his book like killing children the same way as they do with pigs so that he could point out that the government should not treat Irish people like animals. For we are all human beings deserving of the same respect and equality.

Satire is a form of verbal irony that is used by writers to criticize and expose corruption and foolishness of an individual or society. The quote from Alexander Pope's, The Rape of the Lock, is a good example of satire. The author uses this literary device to criticize the upper middle class of eighteenth century England. He especially criticized the vanity of young "fashionable" gentlemen and ladies, and the frivolity of their actions. Like Belinda, when she thought her virtue was equal to a China jar being broken.