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the need for immediate action


inflammation of the kidney and its pelvis caused by bacterial infection


excessive urination at night

interstitial cystitis

a chronic inflammation within the walls of the bladder


painful or difficult urination

benign prostatic hyperplasia

enlargement of the prostate gland


agents that alleviate muscle spasms


the increase in the concentration of acid

gram positive

bacteria that retains purple stain inside the cell wall during the Gram staining procedure

gram negative

bacteria with a more porous cell wall, does not retain purple stain, appears red/pink/orange after Gram straining procedure


agent that slows or stops the growth of bacteria


preventing infection by inhibiting the growth or action of microorganisms


a chemical substance derivable from a mold or bacterium that kills microorganisms and cures infections


range of bacteria against which an antibiotic is effective


the working together of two things (muscles or drugs for example) to produce an effect greater than the sum of their individual effects

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