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Social group

Two or more people who identify with and interact with one another.

Primary group

A small social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships.

Secondary group

A large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity.

Instrumental leadership

Group leadership that focuses on the completion of tasks.

Expressive leadership

Group leadership that focuses on the group's well-being.


The tendency of group members to conform, resulting in a narrow view of some issue.

Reference group

A social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations and decisions.


A social group toward which a member feel respect and loyalty.


A social group toward which a person feels a sense of competition or opposition.


A social group with two members.


A social group with three members.


A web of weak social ties.


Values and beliefs passed from generation to generation.


A way of thinking that emphasizes deliberate, matter-of-fact calculation of the most efficient way to accomplish a particular task.

Rationalization of society

The historical change from tradition to rationality as the main type of human thought.


An organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficienty.

Organizational environment

Factors outside an organization that affect its operation.

Bureaucratic inertia

The tendency of bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate themselves.


The rule of the many by the few.

Scientific management

The application of scientific principles to the operation of a business or other large organization.

Bureaucratic ritualism

A focus on rules and regulations to the point of undermining an organization's goals.

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