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21 terms

Intro to Sociology, Chapter 5: Groups and Organizations

STUDY
PLAY
Social group
Two or more people who identify with and interact with one another.
Primary group
A small social group whose members share personal and lasting relationships.
Secondary group
A large and impersonal social group whose members pursue a specific goal or activity.
Instrumental leadership
Group leadership that focuses on the completion of tasks.
Expressive leadership
Group leadership that focuses on the group's well-being.
Groupthink
The tendency of group members to conform, resulting in a narrow view of some issue.
Reference group
A social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations and decisions.
In-group
A social group toward which a member feel respect and loyalty.
Out-group
A social group toward which a person feels a sense of competition or opposition.
Dyad
A social group with two members.
Triad
A social group with three members.
Network
A web of weak social ties.
Tradition
Values and beliefs passed from generation to generation.
Rationality
A way of thinking that emphasizes deliberate, matter-of-fact calculation of the most efficient way to accomplish a particular task.
Rationalization of society
The historical change from tradition to rationality as the main type of human thought.
Bureaucracy
An organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficienty.
Organizational environment
Factors outside an organization that affect its operation.
Bureaucratic inertia
The tendency of bureaucratic organizations to perpetuate themselves.
Oligarchy
The rule of the many by the few.
Scientific management
The application of scientific principles to the operation of a business or other large organization.
Bureaucratic ritualism
A focus on rules and regulations to the point of undermining an organization's goals.