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49 terms

Sociology Chapter 1

STUDY
PLAY
Which discipline may by described as the systematic study of human society?
Sociology
If one adopts the sociological perspective, he or she
will change commonly held beliefs
Where would a sociological perspective likely be developed and flourish?
in area experiencing social problems, or significant social changes
The sociological perspective was developed in the areas where
the greatest changes were taking place
August Comte coined the term __ to refer to the study of society
sociology
___is a way of understanding the world based on science
positivism
A statement of how and why specific facts are related is called a/an
theory
Theories are
confirmed, modified, or rejected through research
Theory building is guided by
a theoretical paradigm
What is the term for basic image of society that guides thinking and research
theoretical paradigm
How many major theoretical paradigms are there in sociology
three
The theoretical paradigm in sociology that assumes is a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability is the
structural-functional paradigm
Which term describes relatively stable patterns of social behavior?
social structure, social functions
Social structures have consequences for the operation of society as a whole. What is the term for these consequences?
social functions
The recognized and intended consequences of a social pattern are referred to as
manifest functions
Unrecognized and unintended consequences of the social structure are called
latent functions
What is the term for a social patterns undesirable consequences for the operation of society?
social dysfunctions
The chief characteristic of the __ paradigm is its view of society as orderly and stable
structural-functional
The framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change is the
social-conflict paradigm
The statement that social patterns benefit some people while depriving others epersses one of the insights of the
social-conflict paradigm
The ___ paradigms paint societies in broad strokes
structural-functional and social conflict
Which orientation uses a broad focus on the social structures that shape society as a whole?
macro-level
The ___ paradigm is a framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals
symbolic interactions
Select the framework that assumes that society is nothing more that the shared reality that people construct as they interact with one another
symbolic interaction paradigm
Which sociological paradigm tends to ignore the importance of larger social structures in society?
symbolic-interaction paradigm
____is a logical system that bases knowledge on direct, systematic observation
science
Empirical evidence is
information we are able to verify with our senses
A mental construct that represents some part of the world in a somewhat simplified form is a/an
concept
You are asked to measure the age of respndents to your survey. As soon as you apply the measure to each case, you have changed your concept "age" top a/an
variable
What is the term for a concept that has a value that changes from case to case?
variable
You are asked to determine the value of a variable in a specific case. What task have you been assigned
measurement
Higher education causes greater earnings over a lifetime. In this example "higher education is"
an independent variable
A relationship by which two or more varirables change together is called
a correlation
which of the following is a manifest function of sports?
they are a way to provide physical conditioning
Sports are a way to establish new relationships. Making new relationships is
a latent function of sports
An apparent, although false, association between two or more variables caused by some other variable is termed a
spurious correlation
What is the term for the systematic plan for conduction research
research method
An unverified statement of a possible relationship between variables is called a
hypothesis
A ___ is really an educated guess about how variablas are linked
hypothesis
A research method in which subjects respond to a series of items in a questionarire or interview is a/an
survey
In survey reserarch the people who are the focus of the research are called a
population
a part of a population that represents the whole is called a
sample
A disadvantage of the interview format is that
the researcher may inadvertently influence the subject
You wish to conduct exploratory and descriptive studies of people in a natural setting, using qualitative data. Your budgeted resources are meager. What method should you use?
participant observation
Which sociological method is a geared toward explanatory research, generates quantitative data, and provides for relatively easy research replication?
an experiment
Which sociological method is used for gathering information about issues that cannot be directly observed, is useful for descriptive and explanatory research and generates quantitative and or qualitative date
a survey
Which sociologist method provides for easy replication but has an artificial quality?
an experiment
You wish to observe "natural behavior" and you are are unconcerned about replication. Which method should you use?
participant observation
Which sociological method provides for in-depth responses but may produce a low return rate?
a survey