1.5 Ocular Disease
Terms in this set (59)
vision should always be documented.
Common nonspecific retinopathy
cotton wool spots, hard exudates, hemorrhages.
Cotton wool spots represent.
Infarcts from closure of pre capillary arterials
hard exudates are visualized as
Punctate yellowish spots from leaky blood vessels.
neo vascularization of the retina
prone to leaking exudates.
papilla edema refers to
swelling of the optic nerve head in patients with increased intracranial pressure.
Giant cell arteritis may present with
seven loss of vision in one or both eyes and diplopia
to useful tests for giant cell arteritis
erythrocyte sedimentation rate, see reactive protein.
Management of arteritis
start steroids immediately; biopsy can wait a few weeks.
If high suspicion and negative biopsy, then
biopsy uninvolved side.
may be for one year.
Stages of hypertensive retinopathy
complications of the sclerotic phase
in vasoconstrictors phase
there is Hylanisation of the blood vessels
in the exudative phase
hemorrhages, cotton wool spots,
diabetic retinopathy and blindness, epidemiology
leading cause of blindness in patients younger than 65.
In type I diabetes
five-year delay between diagnosis and retinopathy
in type II diabetes
disease is often present at diagnosis
leading cause of irreversible vision loss in diabetics
changes in retina in diabetics
retinal hemorrhages, hard exudates.
Diabetics with cotton wool spots should be monitored for
neo vascularization or proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Treated with laser.
Retinal artery occlusion.
Patients with central retinal artery occlusion have
sudden loss of vision.
Vision loss is permanent. If circulation is not restored within
Lipid emboli usually originate in
atheroma of a stenotic carotid artery.
Respiratory tract disease affects
95% of patients.
Orbital and I involvement affects
The usual cause of blindness is
optic nerve compression.
Most common ocular problem in rheumatoid arthritis
dry eyes occur in
13% of patients.
Scleritis occurs in
more than 50% of acute anterior uveitis
associated with hla-b27 antigen
iritis is characterized by
severe pain, redness, photophobia.
Most common associated diseases
inflammatory bowel disease.
Thyroid eye disease.
Thyroid eye disease occurs between what ages
25 and 50 years.
Most common ocular manifestation in AIDS is
cotton wool spot.
Most common ocular infection that is site threatening
cytomegalovirus retinitis. This is treated with gangcyclovir implants
ophthalmic condition of relevance to the internist.
Glaucoma is a multi-factorial disease process with the end result
characteristic optic neuropathy.
elevated IOP, family history, age, race, steroids, severe farsightness
open angle glaucoma. Comprises what percentage of cases
If untreated leads to
loss of peripheral vision.
Acute closure glaucoma
sudden drastic increase in pressure, severe pain, blurred vision, halos, vomiting.
aging, steroids, ocular trauma, long-term exposure to bright lights, diabetes.
Acute angle closure glaucoma may be precipitated by