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Exam 1 PSY 354 Psychology of Women
Terms in this set (86)
Any person who believes in the social, political, and economic EQUALITY OF ALL GENDERS, regardless of race, ethnicity socioeconomic class, religion, ability, and sexual orientation.
is the radical notion that women are people.
is SOCIALLY CONSTRUCTED. socially ascribed. Encompasses the social expectations associated with femininity and masculinity.
a society in which an individual's gender is considered fluid or changeable. A role that allows an individual to opt out of the two gender categories.
gender identity or gender expression is different from the identity they were assigned at birth.
concept that suggests men and women are judged by onlookers according to standards thought to be appropriate for that gender group.
behaviors and beliefs consistent with prescriptive gender norms for women and include AVOIDING CONFLICT in relationships, putting others' needs first, and tolerating discrepancies between one's internal feelings and one's outward "face".
not the same as gender. it's biological.
An antipathy toward women who are viewed as surpassing men's power. Ex. Once a woman gets gets a man to commit to her, she usually tries to put him on a tight leash.
May seem like a positive attitude towards women. Ex. Many women have a quality of purity that few men possess.
Negative attitudes about women and in resentment of and lack of support for social policies aimed at reducing gender inequalities.
The differential treatment of individuals because they are female or male. Factors include: social customs, economic issues, behavioral restrictions and sanctions.
Prejudiced attitudes and discriminatory behaviors towards women simply because they are women.
______ gender stereotypes simply entail EXPECTATIONS about what typical women and men are like.
_____ gender stereotypes are more like UNWRITTEN RULES about what men and women should be like.
gender similarities hypothesis
holds that male and female humans are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables.
Gender comparison. Bias towards EXAGGERATING differences between men and women. Drawback is implying that certain essential qualities are attached to being male or female.
Gender comparison. Bias towards MINIMIZING differences. Drawback is it tends to ignore the context by taking the stance that "all things are equal" between men and women.
studying and discussing the behavior, thought, or feelings of a person or group as if they were separate from the context in which they are normally embedded.
An approach to research in which researchers try to be aware of and to reflect on the ways their identities (ex. males and females) influence their work and, in turn, how their work influences these aspects of the self.
an approach to knowledge that assumes that reality is INDEPENDENT of the knower and can be discerned "objectively" under proper conditions. Ex. the truth is out there
an approach to knowledge that assumes researchers DID NOT discover independently existing facts through objective observation. Ex. we will never find an answer
A view that gender is something that lies within the individual; a quality that belongs to that person. Ex. the truth is in there
The use of statistical methods to combine the findings of many different studies of the same behavior to evaluate the overall pattern of findings.
A girl's first menstrual period
Gender differences in verbal performance are most dramatic ______
Gender differences in verbal performance are consistent, but small difference in favor of ______.
Gender differences in verbal performance appear ______ than other differences.
In countries with LESS gender equality, the gender gap in math is ______.
In countries with STRONG gender equality, the gender gap in math is ______.
Does NOT exist! period of high tension, depression, irritability, and assorted physical symptoms that is said to occur during the days immediately preceding the onset of menstruation
removal of all or part of the CLITORIS and the PREPAUSE.
Features of the clidorectomy plus removal of part or all of the LIBIA MINORA.
Features of exision plus the cutting away of the LIBIA MAJORA and the sealing of the wound to leave a tiny opening for menstruation and urination.
Sandra Bern measured it. a combination of BOTH feminine and masculine qualities. These people appear to be well-adjusted, flexible and responsive to their environments.
aka Wooley. 1st known dissertation on sex differences.
Mary Whiton Calkins
1st woman to become president of the APA. 1st women to complete coursework in doctoral degree in psychology.
Identification theory. male envy of womb and breasts is more intense than the female envy of the male penis. Devaluation. Sexualization.
Identification theories. ◦Pre-Oedipal relationship with mother
Importance of mother-child
bond to the development of
female and male relational needs
Identification theories. The antigone theory. Infantile grandiosity. Antigone Complex.
An organized set of principles that are supposed to explain show and why things happen. In psychology, they are used to explain why people think, feel and behave as they do
Theory. Argue for biological inheritance of characteristics thought to have been differently useful for females and males in their quest to reproduce.
Theory. The process of forming gender identities and roles is moderated by the child's intellectual maturity; suggesting that they cannot achieve GENDER CONSTANCY until he/she achieves a certain level of intellectual development. Child is an active searcher for information, NOT merely shaped by the environment.
Social learning theory
◦ Gender identity and role learned through modeling, IMITATION, and reinforcement
◦Reciprocal influences between child and environment produce continuities in interactional style:
◦ Cumulative continuity
◦ Interactional continuity
◦Related / Connected
◦ Social Cognitive Theory
◦ Group Socialization Theory
Social roles theory
Theory. Alice Eagly. Women and men are assigned to tasks/jobs on the basis of gender STEREOTYPES. Women and men learn and emphasize DIFFERENT skills and qualities because they are necessary to successfully perform the role. Ex. Maid (female) and plumber (male).
Gender schema theory
Proposes that femininity and masculinity are learned frameworks that individuals use to process information and to decide whether particular behaviors are appropriate for themselves or for others. Integrate social identities into what we call our "self". It's never set.
Social Cognitive theory
Social learning theory. Although children may initially learn gender roles through EXTERNAL rewards and punishments, as they mature, they begin to regulate their own actions thought INTERNAL rewards and punishments.
Group socialization theory
Social learning theory. Postulates that children become socialized primarily by identifying with their peer group and taking on that group's norms for attitudes and behavior.
Horney. Identification theory. One of 2 major environmental dangers to a child's development: Parents' failure to respect the child as a unique and worthwhile person.
Horney. Identification theory. One of 2 major environmental dangers to a child's development: Adults' taking a sexual approach to the child, an "emotional hothouse" atmosphere.
Evolutionary theory. A process in which a trait that enhances survival and thus increases the chances that an individual will survive and have offspring is favored in the evolution of a species. Organisms that process such traits are more likely than others to survive and reproduce.
Big mother hypothesis
Evolutionary theory. The idea that one characteristic that is naturally selected in some species is large in size in females.
Evolutionary theory. Involves competition for and choice of mates. Individuals affect the survival of their own genes, not only by their own characteristics, but also by their choice of mate.
Evolutionary theory. Survival of an organism's genes, not only by their own characteristics but also by their choice of mate.
Evolutionary theory. The time, energy, and other biological and social resources used by parents to promote survival of their offspring. Very unequal between mothers, invest more, and fathers, invest less, in most mammals.
Cognitive Developmental Theory. An understanding that s person's gender is FIXED and cannot be altered by change in hairstyle, dress, or name. This understating is achieved by a child sometime between the ages of 3 and 5.
Cognitive Developmental Theory.
Social learning theory. The process through which an individual, beginning in childhood, selects and creates environments that fit her/his preferred forms of behavior- and these selected environments, in turn, reinforce and sustain that behavior.
Social learning theory. The two-way transactions between the person and the social environment in which the persons behavior through reinforcement, confirmation of expectations, and confirmation of the person's self-concept.
mental framework or filter that guides the way a person processes incoming information
Mental framework or filter that is part of the way a person notices, assesses, and organizes incoming information about the self-analogous in some ways to a mental filing system.
mental framework or filter that guides the way a person processes incoming information on the basis of gender. Network of cognitive associations for gender used by individuals to organize incoming information about themselves and others.
Lesbian identity formation
Pre-coming out stage
Coming out stage
Identity acceptance and exploration
First serious sexual relationship
Having spirit, liveliness, a quality of boldness, the ability "to speak one's mind by telling one's heart"
belief that one can successfully perform certain tasks.
Favor-ability of one's self-view.
______ dependent bases of power. Authority, expertise, bullying, etc.
_____ dependent bases of power. Acquisition of knowledge. Knowledge is power.
____ power: telling you what to do.
_____ power: being passive aggressive.
______ interaction style: the style in which the interactions seem more INTERESTED in sustaining social relationships. They are likely to say they AGREE with another speaker, acknowledge points made by other speakers, and pause to allow another to speak. Predominant in GIRLS.
_____ interaction style: the style in which participants in an interaction are more likely to INTERRUPT one another, command and threaten, boast, refuse ti comply, and give information. Predominant in BOYS.
a deepening personal and cultural emphasis on gender roles during adolescence, particularly for girls, in response to BODILY CHANGES and the development of more abstract ways of thinking.
Communication using words
unspoken communication that includes the way we look at and touch one another, the way we carry ourselves, our gestures, and the ways we occupy and control the space around us.
control over the conversation, in terms of speaking time.
interruptions aimed at taking away another speaker's turn to speak.
______ language: male centered
The sense that one had a RIGHT to expect certain treatment, such as respect, a certain level of pay, and the like.
Boys or girls? Socialized by own same-sex peer groups to emphasize competitive, DOMINANCE orientated (constricting) interactions.
Boys or girls? Socialized by own same-sex peer groups to emphasize collaboration and SUPPORTIVE (enabling) interactions.
according to Freud, this system of feelings is experienced by girls in the phallic stage. The girl realizes she cannot have a penis, replaces her wish for a penis with a wish for a child, and focuses on her father as a love object and on her mother as a rival.
a system of feelings named by Freud for the mythical Greek character who unwittingly killed his own father and married his own mother. Freud said boys at this stage develop an intense attachment for the mother and begin to see the father as a rival.
according to Ellyn Kaschak, in a patriarchal family, the intertwining of the daughter's early attachment to the mother with learning that men are central and women are secondary
young boy's idea that females, beginning with the mother, are extensions of himself, people who exist to gratify him
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