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Computer Concepts Chap 8
Terms in this set (111)
Consists of the programs that control or maintain the operations of the computer and its devices.
Operating System (OS)
A set of programs containing instructions that work together to coordinate all the activities among computer hardware resources.
The operating system that a computer uses sometimes.
A program that runs the same on multiple operating systems.
The process of starting or restarting a computer.
Turning on a computer that has been powered off completely.
Is the process of using the operating system to restart a computer.
The core of an operating system that manages memory and devices, maintains the computer's clock, starts programs and assigns the computer's resources, such as devices, programs, data, and information.
Means it remains it remains in memory while the computer is running.
Other parts of the operating system.
BIOS (Basic input/ouput system)
Firmware that contains the computers startup instructions.
Power-on self test (POST)
Checks the various system components including the buses, system clock, adaptor cards, RAM chips, mouse, kepyboard, and drives.
Specific operating system files.
Consists of several files that contain the system configuration information.
Contains a list of programs that open automatically when you boot the computer.
The drive from which your personal computer boots (starts).
Recovery Disk (Boot Disk)
A special disk that contains a few system files that will start the computer.
Saves any open documents and programs to RAM, turns off all unneeded functions and then places the computer in a low-power state.
Saves an open documents and programs to a hard disk before removing power from the computer.
Controls how you enter data and instructions and how information is displayed on the screen.
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
Interact with menus and visual images such as buttons and other graphical objects to issue commands.
Provides an enhanced visual look, additional navigation options, and animation.
A user types a command or presses special ketys on the keyboard to enter data and instructions.
When working with a commandline interface, the set of commands entered into the computer.
The set of commands entered into the computer.
Single user/single tasking
Operating system that allows only one user to run one program at a time.
Operating system that allows a single user to work on two or more programs that reside in memory at the same time.
The active program (the one you are currently using)
The other program running but not in use.
The operating system interrupts a program that is executing and passes control to another program waiting to be executed.
Operating system that enables two or more users to run programs simutaneously.
Operating system that supports two or more processors running programs at the same time.
Continues to operate whenone of its components fails, ensuring that no data is lost.
Optimizes the use of random access memory (RAM).
The operating system allocates a portion of a storage medium usually the hard disk, to function as additional RAM.
The area of the hard disk used for virtual memory.
The amount of data and program instructions that can swap at a given time.
The technique of swapping items between memory and storage.
When an operating system spends much of its time paging instead of executing application software.
Allocates availabe storage space on removable flash memory devices as additional memory cache.
A segment of memory or storage in which items are placed while waiting to be transferred from an input device or to an output device.
A process that send documents to be printed to a buffer instead of sending them immediately to the printer.
A buffer that holds multple documents (like calls)
A program that intercepts documents to be printed from the operating system and places them in the queue.
Driver (device driver)
A small program that tells the operating system how to communicate with a specific device.
Plug and Play
Means the operating system automatically configures new divices as you install them.
A program that assesses and reports information about various computer resources and divices.
Automatically proviced updates to the program.
Free downloadable updates provided by many software makers, to users who have registered and or activated their software.
Server Operating Sytem
An operating system that organizes and coordinates how multiple users access and share resources on a network.
An account that enable computer and network administrators to access all files and programs and specify settings that effect all users on a computer or network.
User name (user id)
A unique combination of characters, such as letters of the alphabet or numbers that identifies one specific user.
A private combination of characters associated with the user name that allows access to certain computer resources.
The process of encoding data and information into an unreadable form.
A program that runs only on a specific type or make of computer.
A privately ownded and limited to a specific vendor or computer model.
Operating systems that run on computers provided by a variety of manufactures.
Stand-alone operating system
A complete operating system that works on a desktop computer, notebook computer, or mobile computing device.
Microsoft's fastest, most efficient operating system to date, offering quicker program start-up, built-in diagnostics, automatic recovery, improved security, enahanced searching and organizing capabilities and an easy to use interface.
Secures a home and small office network.
Desktop Gadget Gallery
Users can deisplay a variety of gadgets on the Windows desktop.
A mini-program with minimal functionality that connects to another program or provides information.
Windows 7 Starter
for netbooks and other small notebook computers, allows users to easily search for files, connect to printers and devices, browse the internet, join home networks and connect to wireless networks.
Windows 7 Home Premium
Includes all the capabilities of Windows 7 Starter and also includes Windows Aero, provides tools to edit high-definition movies, record and watch television shows, connect to a game console, and read from and write on Blu-ray discs.
Windows 7 Ultimate
Includes all features of Windows Home-premium, and provides additional features designed to keep your files secure and support for 35 languages.
Windows 7 Professional
Users in all sizes of business are provided with a secure operating environment that uses Windows Aero where they can easily search for files, protect their computers from unauthorized intruders and unwanted programs.
Macintosh Operating System
Released in 1984 by Apple, this system has set the standard for operating system ease of use and has been the model for most of the new GUI's developed for non-Macintosh systems.
Mac OS X
The latest multitasking operating system available only for computers manufactured by Apple.
A multitasking operating system developed in the early 1970's by Scientist at Bell Laboratories.
A subsidiary of AT&T.
Introduced in 1991, is a popular, multitasking, UNIX-type operating system.
Open Source Software
Software that has its code provided for use, modification, and redistribution.
The two most popular GUI's available for Linux
GNOME and KDE
Windows Server 2008
An upgrade to Windows Server 2003, that offers the following capabilities: improved web server management, enabling users to share data, enhanced server security, etc.
Windows Server 2008 family
Meets the needs of businesses with editions such as: Standard, Enterprise, Datacenter, for Web server and Web Hosting businesses, and for Itanium-Based Systems.
The practice of sharing or pooling computing resources, such as servers.
A version of UNIX developed by Sun Microsystems, is a server operating system designed to specifically for e-commerce applications.
A server operating system designed for client/server networks.
Embedded Operating System
Resides on a ROM chip, is the operating system on mobile devices and many sonsumer electronics.
Windows Embedded CE
A scaled down Windows operating system designed for use on communications, entertainment, and computing devices with limited functionality.
Windows Phone 7
A successor to Windows Mobile, includes functionality, programs, and a user interface designed for specific types of smart phones.
An operating system that runs on smart phones and PDA's and allows users to manage schedules and contacts, phone messages, notes, task and address lists, and appointments.
Developed by Apple, is an operating system for the iPhone and iPod touch, Apple's ssmart phone and touch screen portable media player, respectively.
Operating system that runs on handheld deviced supplied by RIM (research in motion). Offers capabilities such as managing schedules, contacts, and appointments as well as phone capabilities.
An operating system designed by Google for mobile devices and allows programmers to design programs specifically for devices supporting this operating system.
A scaled-down Linux operating system designed for smart phones, PDA's, portable media players, Internet telephones, and many other types of devices and computers requiring an embedded operating system.
An open source multitasking operating system designed for smart phones allows users to maintain contact lists; save appointments, browse the Web; and send and receive text and picture messages, email and faxes.
Utility Program (a utility)
A type of system software that allows a user to perform maintenance-type tasks, usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs.
A utility that performs functions related to file management.
A specific named location on a storage medium that contains related documents.
An icon on the desktop or in a folder that provides a user with immediate access to a program or file.
A program that attempts to locate a file on your computer based on criteria you specify.
Stores a variety information about a file, including its name, date created, date modified, author name, etc.
A utility that allows users to display, copy, and print the contents of a graphic file, such as a photo.
Windows Photo Viewer
Allows you to print and e-mail photos.
A utility that removes a program, as well as any associated entries in the system files.
A utility that reorganizes the files and unused space on a computer's hard disk so that the opertating system accesses data more quickly and programs run faster.
When the contents of a file are scattered across two or more noncontiguous sectors.
Shrink the size of.
Reserves the process and returns backed up files to their original form.
A utility that causes a display's screen to show a moving image or blank screen if no keyboard or mouse activity occurs for a specific time.
A problem in which images could be etched permanently on a monitor's screen.
A utility that detects and protects a personal computer from unauthorized intrusions.
Copies itself repeatedly in memory or over a network, using up system resources and possibly shuting down the system.
Hides within or looks like a legitimate program such as a screen saver.
Protects a computer against viruses by identifying and removing any computer viruses found in memory.
A program placed on a computer without the users knowledge that secretely collects information about the user, ofter related to Web browsing habits.
A program that displays an online advertisement in a banner or pop-up window on web pages, email, or other Internet services.
a program that detects and deletes spyware and other similar programs.
A program that detects and deletes adware.
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