-Named after William Beveridge-designed Britain's NHS
-health care is provided and financed by the government through tax payments, just like the police force or the public library.
-Many, but not all, hospitals and clinics are owned by the government; some doctors are government employees, but there are also private doctors who collect their fees from the government. In Britain, you never get a doctor bill. These systems tend to have low costs per capita, because the government, as the sole payer, controls what doctors can do and what they can charge.
-Great Britain, Scandanavia, Spain, Hong Kong
-Cuba represents the extreme application of the Beveridge approach; it is probably the world's purest example of total government control.
Prussiun Chancellor Otto Von Bismarck-invented the welfare state as part of the unification of Germany in the 19th century
-European heritage but similar to American system in that it uses insurers, and paid for by employee and employer contributions to "sickness funds"
-Bismarck-type health insurance plans have to cover everybody, and they don't make a profit. Doctors and hospitals tend to be private in Bismarck countries; Japan has more private hospitals than the U.S. Although this is a multi-payer model -- Germany has about 240 different funds -tight regulation gives government much of the cost-control clout that the single-payer Beveridge Model provides.
Found in:Germany, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Japan, Switzerland, and, to a degree, in Latin America.
-National Health Insurance Model
-Started as hospital only but grew to include hospital and physician NHI by 1966
-Tax financed, public, single payer healthcare system
-The single payer is the provincial health plan, Federal taxes finance about 1/3 of provincial health plan. The rest financed by provincial taxes which vary according to province and include income taxes, payroll taxes, sales taxes, some charge specific premium earmarked tax to finance health budget.
- Unlike Germany they have severed link between employment and health insurance.
-No distinction between social insurance and public assistance, everyone contributes through the tax structure and everyone receives benefits.
-Cover hospital, physician, ancillary services, outpatient drugs. Scope of drug coverage and LTC benefits varies across provinces.
- Unique in that they prohibit private health insurance for coverage provided by provincial health plans. Prevents preferencial treatment. They can purchase insurance policies for gaps and amenities such as private hospital rooms