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a change over time in the hereditary features (genes) of a species
when an entire group of organisms ceases to exist
when a large era is broken up into smaller units of time
The Fossil Record
all of the fossils ever discovered. It is very incomplete
any evidence of prehistoric life.
comparing rock layers (fossils) and discovering their age
using the breakdown (decay) of radioactive elements to tell how old an object is
comparing the body plans of different organisms
body parts that are similar in different organisms
body parts that are not used by an organism and are shrinking
the study of embryos (developing embryos)
(DNA, proteins, etc) DNA similar in related species ex. chimp DNA 99%=Human DNA
English scientist who discovered how the process of evolution works. Was a naturalist for H.M.S. Beagle (5 years, around the world). Made many observations especially in the Galapagos Islands
noticed that finches on different islands had different adaptations to different environment
process by which organisms with favorable traits survive and reproduce at a higher rate than organisms without the favorable trait. The environment determines what is favorable
over production of offspring
variations within species
individuals within a population are different fron one another
struggle to survive
competition; not enough resources (food, water, mates, space,etc) for all members of a population
because organisms with the advantages will be more likely to survive and reproduce, they will pass on their variations to their offspring