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Erik Erickson postulated that the main developmental issue for adolescents to wrestle with is their sense of ______.


The tendency for youths to reduce the frequency of their offending behavior as they become older is called ____.

the aging-out process

Nineteenth-century reformers who developed programs for troubled youth and influenced legislation creating the juvenile justice system were referred to as ____.

the child savers

A philosophical viewpoint that encourages the state to take control of wayward children and provide care, custody, and treatment to children is called ____.

the best interest of the child

Illegal actions committed by uveniles that would not be considered illegal if perpetrated by adults are called ____.

status offenses

The Uniform Crime Report (UCR) is compiled by the ____.

Federal Bureau of Investigation

The FBI is currently developing and instituting a program called the ____, which collects more in-depth data on each reported crime.

National Incident-Based Reporting System

A questionnaire or survey technique that ask subjects to reveal their own participation in delinquent or criminal acts is called?

self report survey

With few exceptions, males are significantly more delinquent than females. The teenage gender ratio for serious violent crime is approximately ____ to one, male to female.


Who is most likely to be a victim of violent crime?

black males

____ theory holds that youth will engage in criminal and delinquent behavior after weighing the consequences and benefits of their behavior.


The view that both thought and behavior have biological and social bases is called ____.

biosocial theory

The view that all people are equal at birth and are thereafter influenced by their environment is called ____.


The theory that law violations are a product of an abnormal personality structure formed early in life is called ____

psychodynamic theory

The view that behavior is modeled through observation, either directly through intimate contact with others, or indirectly through media is called ____.

social learning theory

____ theories hold that delinquency is a function of a person's economic status.

Social Structure

____ theories view delinquency as the result of a person's interaction with critical elements of socialization.

Social process

Sociologist Oscar Lewis coined the phrase ____ to describe the crushing burden faced by the urban poor.

culture of poverty

____ theory hypothesizes that delinquency is picked up through close relationships with others.

Social learning

____ theory maintains that all people would violate the law if not prevented from doing so by the social bond.

Social control

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