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Cardio Wk 2
Terms in this set (95)
Where is the block in a case of Mobitz 1 2nd degree block?
This type of 2nd degree block is characterized by a
prolonging PR interval
Describe the prognosis for Mobitz 1 2nd degree block
Describe the QRS complex in a case of Mobitz 2 2nd degree block
Describe the PR intervals in a case of Mobitz 2 2nd degree block
Describe V1 findings in RBBB
Describe V1 findings in LBBB
What happens to relative wall thickness in
What are two broad types of acute workload changes
What are the limitations of the heart in responding to acute loads?
Would regurgitant valves lead to chronic volume or pressure overload?
What type of hypertrophy is associated with
What type of hypertrophy is associated with
Connecting sarcomeres in
results in __________ hypertrophy
How is the
changed during the hypertrophy process?
Do catecholamines and angiotensin II induce or inhibit the development of hypertrophy?
Which type of hypertrophy is most characterized by fibrosis?
What type of LVH is associated with running (high dynamic + low static demands)?
What type of LVH is associated with weight-lifting (low dynamic + high static demands)?
Which regions of the heart are supplied by the LCA?
What are the two most common origins of the SA nodal artery?
Which layer of the heart wall has a
Pressure differences across which two regions determine coronary blood flow?
During which stage of the cardiac cycle is coronary blood flow higher?
What is "extravascular resistance" and how does it impact coronary blood flow?
Which has lower net driving force for coronary flow: the
Which element of coronary blood flow contributes most to coronary vascular resistance?
What are the two resistance components of vasodilator reserve?
What happens to epicardial vessel resistance as stenosis of a coronary vessel progresses?
_________ regulation is constriction/dilation of vasculature in response to changes in
What are the two types of nitric oxide synthase?
This vasoconstrictor is released by the endothelium and helps support
How does ACh affect damaged endothelium?
Name three categories of drugs used to manage
Describe the mechanism underlying
What is small vessel disease?
Describe the presentation of heart failure
What are the stages of heart failure?
Which sex has more compliant ventricles?
Which sex tends to develop HF with a more normal ejection fraction?
In which sex is HF generally more symptomatic?
How is EF used to classify heart failure?
Which type of HF is more common (systolic/diastolic)? And which is more easily treated?
This is the "prime directive" for the body's response to HF
Describe three ways the heart can respond to a "hemodynamic burden"
Describe some of the symptoms and physical findings of
What type of block is associated with ventricular dyssynchrony? In what context does it arise?
How does ventricular
affect LV preload and transmitral blood flow?
What happens to NE concentrations in blood when CHF patients exercise?
How does alpha-adrenergic activity impact sodium and water reabsorption?
What effect does
have on prostaglandins (vasodilators)?
What effect does angiotensin 2 have on the LV?
Angiotensin-2 (inhibits/stimulates) the release of NE
How does angiotensin-2 affect sodium absorption in the proximal tubules?
Aldosterone works to increase loss of these two important ions
How is the endothelium affected in CHF patients?
This pro-inflammatory cytokine is found to be overexpressed in hearts suffering from HF
What is the pathophysiology behind findings of cardiac cachexia and anemia of chronic disease seen in HF?
What is the stimulus for release of BNP?
What happens to beta-1 receptor density in the context of HF?
Plasma concentrations of this protein can be used as a
marker for prognosis
Where is BNP produced?
What effect do ANP/BNP have on GFR? On vagal tone?
How is HF with preserved EF treated?
Do ACE inhibitors affect preload, afterload, or contractility?
ACE inhibitors also inhibit _____________, an enzyme that degrades bradykinin (a vasodilator)
_______ is an inhibitor of aldosterone's effects and has been shown to increase survival of HF patients
Lecture mentioned that these drugs have been shown to increase LVEF in patients with HF
Describe the mechanism of sacubitril/valsartan
Describe the mechanism and use of
Under what conditions of heart failure is
cardiac resynchronization therapy
What is the most common type of shock?
Pulmonary artery wedge pressure can be used as a measure of _________________
Describe SVR in a case of
Describe CO in a case of
Describe RA/RV pressures and PAWP in a case of
This is the only type of shock in which RA/RV pressures and PAWP move in opposite directions (one decreases, one increases)
This is the only type of shock in which SVR experiences a
This is the only type of shock in which the SVR experiences an
What is the "primary pathophysiologic derangement" in *hypovolemic shock?
What % of volume loss is generally needed to experience overt symptoms of shock?
This type of shock is associated with normal RA/RV pressures and normal PAWP
How do SVR and CO change from
distributive shock to
Adrenal crisis or thyroid storm are possible etiologies for which type of shock?
This is the most common cause of
What is the "vicious cycle" referred to in lecture (in the context of cardiogenic shock)
How can one differentiate between hypovolemic shock and obstructive shock (based purely of pumping and pressure parameters?)
Which is associated with greater pericardial effusion volumes: acute or chronic tamponade?
Pulsus paradoxus is associated with this condition
Does measured BP normally increase or decrease upon inspiration?
What type of shock is associated with
increased left heart size
Describe BP and CO in pre-shock (first shock stage)
How does the lactic acidosis of end organ failure (last stage of shock) contribute to the CO decrease?
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