44 terms

Chapter 2 Vocab Foundation of restaurent management & culinary art Level One

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bacteria
Cause many foodborne illnesses. Some bacteria, as they grow and die, create toxins (poisons) in food. Cooking may not destroy these toxins, and people who eat them can become sick.
bimetallic stemmed thermometer
Can check temperatures from 0°F to 220°F. This makes it useful for checking both hot and cold types of food.
calibration
Regular adjustments to tools to keep them accurate.
cleaners
Chemicals that remove food, dirt, rust, stains, minerals, and other deposits.
cleaning
Removing food and other dirt from a surface.
contact time
The specific period of time during which objects being sanitized must be immersed in a solution. The contact time depends on the type of sanitizer being used.
contamination
Occurs when harmful things are present in food, making it unsafe to eat.
corrective action
Action taken to fix a problem if a critical limit hasn't been met.
critical control points (CCPs)
The points in a process where identified hazard(s) can be prevented, eliminated, or reduced to safe levels.
critical limit
A requirement, such as a temperature requirement, that must be met to prevent, eliminate, or reduce a hazard.
cross-contact
The transfer of allergens from food containing an allergen to the food served to a customer.
cross-contamination
The spread of pathogens from one surface or food to another.
FAT TOM
A way to remember the six conditions pathogens need to grow: food, acidity, temperature, time, oxygen, and moisture.
first-in, first-out (FIFO) method
Rotation of food in storage to use the oldest inventory first. Many operations use the FIFO method to rotate refrigerated, frozen, and dry food during storage.
flow of food
The path that food takes in an operation. It begins when you buy the food and ends when you serve it.
food allergy
The body's negative reaction to a food protein.
food safety management system
A group of procedures and practices that work together to prevent foodborne illness.
foodborne illness
A disease transmitted to people by food.
foodborne-illness outbreak
When two or more people get the same illness after eating the same food items.
foodhandlers
This includes more than just the people who prepare food. Servers and even dishwashers are considered foodhandlers, because they either handle food directly or work with the surfaces that food will touch.
fungi
Can cause illness, but most commonly, they are responsible for spoiling food. Fungi are found in air, soil, plants, water, and some food. Mold and yeast are two examples of fungi.
handwashing
The most important part of personal hygiene.
hazard
Something with the potential to cause harm. In the preparation of food, hazards are divided into three categories: biological, chemical, and physical.
Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP)
A type of food safety management system. HACCP identifies major hazards at specific points within a food's flow through the operation.
high-risk populations
Certain groups of people who have a higher risk of getting a foodborne illness than others.
host
A person, animal, or plant on which another organism, such as a parasite, lives and feeds.
immune system
The body's defense against illness.
infrared thermometers
These thermometers, which measure the temperatures of food and equipment surfaces, do not need to touch a surface to check its temperature, so there is less chance for cross-contamination and damage to food.
inspection
A formal review or examination conducted to see whether an operation is following food safety laws.
integrated pest management program (IPM)
A system that will prevent, control, or eliminate pest infestations in an operation.
master cleaning schedule
A schedule that contains what should be cleaned, who should clean it, when it should be cleaned, and how it should be cleaned.
mold
Molds grow under almost any condition, but especially in acidic food with little moisture. Molds often spoil food and sometimes produce toxins that can make people sick. Refrigerator and freezer temperatures may slow the growth of molds, but cold doesn't kill them.
parasites
Parasites are organisms that live on or in another organism (the host). The parasite receives nutrients from the host.
pathogens
The microorganisms that cause illness.
personal hygiene policies
These policies must address personal cleanliness, clothing, hand care, and health in order to prevent foodhandlers from contaminating food.
pest control operator (PCO):
Experts at applying, storing, and disposing of pesticides who have access to the most current and safe methods for eliminating pests. They are trained to determine the best methods for eliminating specific pests and are knowledgeable about local regulations.
ready-to-eat food
Food that can be eaten without further preparation, washing, or cooking.
sanitizing
Reducing pathogens on a surface to safe levels.
TCS food
Food that is most vulnerable for pathogen growth is also referred to as food that needs time and temperature control for safety (TCS).
temperature danger zone
The temperature range between 41°F and 135°F. Pathogens grow well in food that has a temperature in this range.
thermocouples and thermistors
Common in restaurant and foodservice operations. They measure temperatures through a metal probe and display them digitally. The sensing area on thermocouples and thermistors is on the tip of the probe.
time-temperature abused
Food that is cooked to the wrong internal temperature, held at the wrong temperature, or cooled and reheated improperly.
viruses
The leading cause of foodborne illness. Viruses can survive refrigerator and freezer temperatures.
yeast
Can spoil food quickly. The signs of spoilage include the smell or taste of alcohol, white or pink discoloration, slime, and bubbles.