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Ch 38 HW
Terms in this set (29)
Angiosperm Life Cycle
Angiosperms, or flowering plants, have a life cycle characterized by an alternation of generations, meaning that there are two different multicellular forms: one haploid form and one diploid form. In addition to the alternation of generations, other aspects of the angiosperm life cycle, including pollination, fertilization, and seed development, have enabled flowering plants to populate and thrive in a variety of environments.
Part A - Alternation of generations in angiosperms
The diagram below illustrates the alternation of generations that is characteristic of the angiosperm life cycle. Label structures and processes (using white labels), indicate whether different structures are haploid or diploid (using pink labels), and indicate the types of cell division that occur at different points in the life cycle (using blue labels).
Drag the labels to their appropriate locations on the diagram of the angiosperm life cycle. Labels can be used once or more than once. Use only white labels for white targets, pink labels for pink targets, and blue labels for blue targets.
Part B - Fertilization and seed development
You have learned that the fusion of egg and sperm produces a zygote. But how does the sperm reach the egg, and how does the zygote develop into a seed, which eventually germinates and grows into a mature sporophyte? In this activity, you will demonstrate your understanding of double fertilization and seed development in angiosperms.
Drag the statements to their appropriate locations on the flowchart of pollination, fertilization, and seed development.
a. pollen tube grows down the style
b. generative, cell divides, forming 2 sperm
c. 2 sperm are discharged into the female gametophyte
d. sperm fuse with the egg & 2 polar nuclei
e. zygote forms & divides into a terminal cell & a basal cell
f. cells of the embryo differentiate into three tissue types
Part C - Angiosperms and life on land
Many aspects of the angiosperm life cycle make flowering plants particularly well-suited to life on land. In fact, angiosperms are the most diverse and widespread of all plants.
Which six of the following statements reflect angiosperm adaptations to life on land?
1. Floral parts of the sporophyte protect the reduced female gametophyte from drying out and from UV radiation.
2. Flowers attract animal pollinators carrying pollen from other plants of the same species.
3. Seeds enable plant embryos to be dispersed long distances from the parent plant via wind or animals.
4. In many angiosperms, the male gametophyte contained in a pollen grain can be transported many miles away by wind or animal pollinators.
5. Seeds protect and nourish plant embryos, and fruits protect the seeds.
6. Fruits aid in the dispersal of seeds by wind or by animals that carry or eat the fruits.
Which part of a plant attracts pollinators?
Which process involves the transfer of pollen grains from an anther to a stigma?
True or false? The endosperm in a seed develops into the embryo.
The endosperm in a seed is not the embryo, but the food supply for the embryo.
Which term describes the male gametophytes of flowering plants?
Which structure formed by the male gametophyte allows sperm to reach the ovary of a flowering plant?
How is fertilization in flowering plants different from fertilization in other plant groups?
One sperm nucleus fuses with the egg to form a diploid zygote, whereas the other sperm nucleus fuses with two polar nuclei to form a cell that develops into endosperm.
Which of the following statements about seed formation in a flowering plant is true?
The swellings that develop into cotyledons are located at the end of the embryo on top of the row of single cells.
What is endosperm?
via cotyledons, a source of food for the embryo
The pointer is indicating a diploid cell that develops into the _____
Fruits evolved primarily as structures specialized to _____.
Why do fleshy fruits often have seeds with very tough seed coats?
So the seeds can survive the mechanical forces and conditions in an animal's gut
What characterizes the fruit of seeds that are dispersed by the wind?
They have structures to extend the distance they travel on the wind.
True or false? Fruits provide food to the developing plant.
Fruits protect seeds and aid in their dispersal; the endosperm provides food to the developing plant.
Which part of a flower develops into the seed?
Once pollination has occurred, the fertilized ovule develops into the seed.
Which term describes the portion of a peach that can be eaten by humans?
The edible portion of a peach is the pericarp, or fruit wall, which is a protective structure that encloses the seed and aids in its dispersal.
True or false? The endosperm tissue that nourishes the developing plant has the same nutritional characteristics regardless of the plant species.
The characteristics of the endosperm tissue vary by plant species; some tissues contain large amounts of starch (corn), while others contain large amounts of protein (beans).
Chapter 38 Pre-Test Question 3
In angiosperms, each pollen grain produces two sperm. What do these sperm do?
One fertilizes an egg, and the other combines with two polar nuclei, which develop into stored food cells (endosperm).
Chapter 38 Pre-Test Question 4
The germination of seeds _____.
depends on imbibition
Chapter 38 Pre-Test Question 6
Which of the following is an advantage of asexual reproduction in plants?
enhanced survival of genetically favorable offspring
Chapter 38 Pre-Test Question 10
Which example below is a concern related to the debate over plant biotechnology?
introduced genes spreading into related wild species and leading to the creation of "superweeds"
What does it mean to say that pigweed is resistant to herbicide?
Pigweed plants thrive despite the application of herbicides intended to kill them.
In the past, herbicides were very effective as a pigweed killer, but today _____.
pigweed is taking over fields of cotton and soybeans
The scientists who produced the herbicide warned against overuse, saying that over time, ____.
resistant weeds would increase in number
Why is pigweed so difficult to control? Select all that apply.
the number of inches it grows daily
the number of seeds it produces
its thick, woody stem
What effect(s) has the proliferation of herbicide-resistant pigweed had on southern farmers? Select all that apply.
They may have to pick their crops by hand.
They have to hire laborers to cut and remove the weeds by hand.
Their large machinery is prone to damage from the pigweed plants.
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