Unit 1 Mass Media
Terms in this set (194)
transmission of a message from a source to a receiver
BETTER DEF: the process of creating shared meaning
must happen for communication to take place (requires the response of others)
a message. students responding to the teacher who is now a receiver. a reciprocal and ongoing process
communication between two or a few people. no clear identifiable source or receiver. Wilbur Schramm developed graphic way to rep reciprocal nature.
transformed into an understandable sign and symbol system (speaking, writing, printing, filming)
message is received. signs and symbols are interpreted (listening, reading, watching)
osgood and schramm model
model that demonstrates the ongoing and reciprocal nature of communicationos
anything that interferes with successful communication
means of sending information, carry encoded messages
medium that carries messages to large number of people (newspapers, radio)
communication and ____ are linked
LEARNED behaviors of a given social group. help us make meaningful distinctions about right and wrong
can divide us OR unite us. world made meaningful
dominant (mainstream) culture
one that seems to hold sway with majority of people
smaller, serves to differentiate us from others
cultural storytellers, cultural forum
two ways to understand our opportunities/responsibilities in the mass communication process are view mass media as ___________ ________ and conceptualize mass comm as a ________
watching 3 or more of a series in one sitting. 70% admit to it
4 or more
how many hours of music do we listen to a day?
what percent of adults feel that entertainment media provide very good or excellent value?
we ____ yet we ______
that it is machines and their development that drive economic and cultural change
ability to effectively and efficiently comprehend and use any form of mediated communication
books, printed materials
what was the first mass medium? mass-produced product?
ability to comprehend and use written symbols
used metal type in place of type from wood or clay. for printing press. allowed mass comm. stressed quality over quantity. reading became a necessity. in 1400s
what did printing do?
gave ordinary people a powerful voice. led rise of democracy. road to modernization. new ideas about the world.
what has encouraged violence in our society?
7 elements of media literacy
1. critical thinking skill- develop independent judgements about content
2. understanding of process of mass comm
3. awareness of impact of media on individual and society
4. strategies for analyzing and discussing media messages
5. understanding media content as a text which provides insight into our culture and lives
6. ability to enjoy, understand, and appreciate media content
7. development of effective and responsible production skills
8. understanding of ethical and moral obligations of media practitioners "it is legal, but is it ethical"
third person effect
common attitude that others are influenced by media messages but we are not
categories of expression within different media, "evening news" "horror movie"
characterizes genre with certain distinctive style elements. example: news has an upbeat song with two good looking anchors
choice of lighting, editing, special effects, music, camera angle, ect
process of creating shared meaning between the mass media and their audiences. employs technology to distribute to large numbers. useless without distribution
we consume MUCH media. mechanical or electronic channel used for communication
changes in technology drive changes in ____, it can be defined by its dominant economic activity
industrial revolution (4000BCE)-----> information rev. (1960 CE)
idea that money determines just about everything. our media are dominated by the profit motive
a useful casual chronology. "story" of how we got in a mess. understanding mass media leads to understanding history
(bc we dont know answer) set of related explanatory statements. science is about developing a better theory
what percentage of the world is connected to internet?
significant development occurred in the newspaper business in the 1830s where they began to sell space to ______ in order to _____ their papers.
Factory jobs left workers with more leisure time occurred during the Industrial Revolution that caused a growing audience for _______ information and entertainment
if we ignore the impact of media on our lives, we will be ___ along by it instead of ______ it.
multiple points of access
You enjoy The Daily Show both as a television comedy and as a means for learning about current events and political viewpoints. This is an example of using ________.
indirect. example: Television executives can wait days or weeks for the ratings of new programs
allowed literacy to become available to everyone.
Marshall McLuhan argued that the advent of print was the key to our modern consciousness. What did he mean? allowed literacy to become available to everyone.
an abstract description of some phenomenon
one that strips away the elements that are tied to specific instances
ways the model is obviously like the thing it represents
ways the model is obviously not like the thing it represents
might be like model. how useful is it to us?
1. "everything there is to know" "everything God knows"
2. subset of 1st: everything in range of your perception in your lifetime-all you could perceive
3. subset of 2nd: what you do perceive (you dont remember at all)
4. subset of 3rd: all info you have retained and used to construct your notion of the world
Korpis #3 rule
everyone operates with partial info
one for every topic, represents everything you could possibly retain. what you "know" about something
implication of mosaic model
memory plays a role, participant (not just receiver). cumulative meaning. unintended bits of info. other messages sets affects perception. single messages have much impact. we dont consume whole messages. we consume selected info bits.
means of delivering a specific piece of media content
how many hours do media consumers average a week with mass media?
engaged simultaneously with many different screens
what percentage of teens use their cell everyday
electronic sell-through (EST)
buying of digital download movies which brings the studio more than 1.5 billion in new revenue
the erosion of traditional distinctions among media
concentration of ownership
the phenomenon of the ownership of media companies becoming increasingly concentrated in fewer and fewer hands. six companies - comcast, news corp, disney, viacom, time warner, and cbs, who own 90% of the media content consumed by americans
increase in the ownership of media outlets by larger, nonmedia companies. example: CBS Corporation owns the CBS and Showtime television networks, CBS Radio, Charles Scribner's Sons publishing, and a number of other ventures
two positive observations on conglomeration and and concentration are that they can reach more widespread ________ and resulting media companies face less financial ______
economies of scale
bigger can be better because the relative cost of an operation's output declines as the size of that endeavor grows
concentration of media industries into an even smaller number of companies
primarily large, multinational conglomerates that are doing the lion's share of media acquisitions
individual segments of the audience are becoming more narrowly defined, the audience itself is less of a mass audience
narrowcasting, niche marketing, or targeting
media targeted smaller audiences that were alike in some important characteristic and therefore more attractive to specific advertisers
allows radio stations to deliver commercials to specific neighborhoods
location-based mobile advertising
lets marketers directly send ads targeted at you wherever you are in the moment
technologies permitting the transmission of very specific content to equally specific audience members. makes audiences increasingly fragmented
groups of people bound by little more than an interest in a given form of media content
about 25% of a prime-time network television hour is devoted to commercial announcement breaks
integration, for a fee, of specific branded products into media content
when brands are part of and essential to the program
many radio stations now accept payment from record promoters to play songs, used to be illegal. it is acceptable as long as the "sponsorship" is acknowledged on the air
2 reasons for convergence
2. audience fragmentation
industry with a strong incentive to get the greatest use from its content, whether news, education, or entertainment, by using as many channels of delivery as possible.
having no preference for where we access our media content
regularly updated online journals that comment on everything
3 things ____ has been _____ by:
1. digitalization of almost all content, making it possible to transmit and share info across all platforms
2. increasing speed of both wire and wireless networks
3. fast and ongoing advances in comm technology that make once-unimagined ideas quite possible
mass communication model
4 things is the message in the traditional ____ _________ ______ : typically mechanically produced, simultaneously sent, inflexible, and unalterable
RSS or Really simple syndication
aggregators that allow web users to create their own content assembled from the internet's limitless supply of material.
an RSS "message"
infinitely alterable, completely unique, and thoroughly idiosyncratic
audiences consume content at a time predetermined by the producer and distributor
what appointment consumption is evolving to. the ability to consume any content, anytime, anywhere
Media that can transmit very specific content to specific audience members, such as personalized newspapers
fraction of selection
what happens when audience members weigh the level of reward they expect from a given medium against how much effort they must make to secure that reward
some observers believe that _________ of media will have a positive effect and help people from different cultures learn about one another.
Critics say concentration and conglomeration affect American democracy in that corporate media rely more on official _______ sources for news than on their own _______
3 revolutions in digital technology
broadband, mobile connectivity, social
"like" the real thing in some way (continuous). the real world is continuous, human perception is analog, easier technology. cant make exact copy!
characterized by units/"digits" (discrete). convenient and easy to communicate. continuous range is often not necessary. the info lost while using digits, doesnt matter!! you can leave something out but it still can be reproduced perfectly
analog to digital converter
real world is analog and requires conversion if we need a digital representation
digital to analog converter
our perception is analog, therefore a digital message requires conversion before we can perceive it.
reduces amount of data
reduce amount of data in a way it can be restored
reducing amount of data by using clever set of rules to throw away info
show technology is not always reliable
what and how
enabling technology defines:
new idea or technology, is communicated in various ways over time to members of a social group and is implemented sometimes
individuals or organizations, clusters within social networks, or countries
allow transfer of info from one unit to another
combo of external and internal influences
take risks, highest social status, closest contact to scientific sources and interaction with other innovators
highest degree of opinion leadership, higher social status, more discrete in adoption choices than innovators
adopt an innovation after time significantly longer than the innovators and early adopters, above average social status, contact with early adopters, seldom hold positions of opinion leadership in a system
adopt innovation after average participant, below average social status, little liquidity in money, little opinion leadership approach innovation with high degree of skepticism, after majority has adopted
last to adopt an innovation and show little to no opinion leadership. typically have an aversion to change - agents, lowest social status, focused on "traditions", oldest among adopters
5 stages of adoption
knowledge (exposed to innovation but lacks info about it)
persuasion (interested in innovation/seeks related info)
decision (whether to reject or adopt innovation)
implementation (employs innovation to varying degree, determines usefulness)
confirmation (finalizes decision to continue using it)
factors of adoption
relative advantage, compatibility, complexity/simplicity, trialability, observability
how improved an innovation is over previous generation
level of compatibility that an innovation has to be assimilated into an individual's life
if innovation is perceived as complicated to use, individual is unlikely to adopt it
how easily innovation may be experimented. if user can test it, more likely to adopt it
extent that innovation is visible to others. more visible ---> drive communication among peers ----> positive/negative reactions
children confront the world in all its splendor and vulgarity through television
willingly suspend disbelief
we willingly accept as real what is put before us
where much more important, impact of media operates
few direct effects
asking larger questions about what kind of nation we are building, what people we are becoming
sees media as senders of info for the purpose of control, meaning media either has effects on our behavior or it doesnt
central to the maintenance of society in time. necessary to understand the cultural importance of mass comm
mass comm theories
explanations and predictions of social phenomena that attempt to relate mass comm to various aspects of our personal and cultural lives or social systems
idea that peoples idea of themselves, their world, and their place in it are shaped and maintained primarily through television
attitude change theory
theory that explains how people's attitudes are formed, shaped, and changed and how those attitudes influence behavior
middle range theories
explain or predict specific, limited aspects of the mass comm process
mass society theory
idea that the media are corrupting influences that undermine the social order and that avg people are defenseless against their influence
needle theory or magic bullet theory
media is a dangerous drug or a killing force against which avg people are defenseless
one designed to describe and explain all aspects of a given phenomenon
limited effects theories
theories that emerged from era of the first systematic and scientific study of media effects.
individual differences (intelligence or education)
social categories (religious or political affiliation)
personal relationships (friends and family)
two step flow theory
by Lazarsfeld. of mass media and personal influence is a well-known product of this era
people who initially consumed media content on topics of particular interest to them, interpreted it in light of their own values and beliefs
people like opinion leaders who had less frequent contact with media
argues that when confronted by new or conflicting info, people experience a kind of mental discomfort, a dissonance
limit or reduce that discomfort through 3 interrelated selective processes
1. selective exposure: expose themselves to or attend to only those messages consistent with their preexisting attitudes and beliefs
2. selective retention: people remember best and longest those messages that are consistent with their preexisting attitudes and beliefs
3. selective perception: people will interpret messages in a manner consistent with their preexisting attitudes and beliefs
uses and gratifications approach
claimed that media do not do thing TO people, rather people do things with media. the influence of media is limited to what people allow it to be
a theory that argues that media may not tell us what to think, but media certainly tells us what to think ABOUT.
argues that people become increasingly dependent on media and media content to understand what is going on around them, to learn how to behave meaningfully, and for escape
social cognitive theory
idea that people learn through observation
direct replication of an observed behavior
special form of imitation in which observers do not copy exactly what they have seen but make a more generalized but related response
observers can acquire new behaviors simply by seeing those behaviors performed
seeing a model, movie character, for example, punished for a behavior reduces the likelihood that the observer will perform that behavior. it is inhibited by what we've seen
seeing a model rewarded for a bad behavior, increases likelihood that observer will perform it
share the underlying assumption that our experience of reality is an ongoing, social construction, not something that is only sent, delivered, or otherwise transmitted by some authority or elite. meaning and effects are negotiated by media and audiences as they interact in culture
critical cultural theory
idea that media operate primarily to justify and support the status quo at the expense of ordinary people
believed that people were oppressed by those who owned the factories and the land
british cultural theory
provides a home for much feminist research and research on popular culture both in europe and in the USA
news production research
study of how economic and other influences on the way news is produced distort and bias news coverage toward those in power
idea that active audience members use media content to create meaning, and meaningful experiences, for themselves
idea that cultural symbols are learned through interaction and then mediate that interaction
advertisers encouraging the audience to perceive their product as symbols that have meaning beyond the product's actual function
social construction of reality
theory that argues that people who share a culture also share an "ongoing correspondence" of meaning
have "objective meaning"
have "subjective" meaning
collections of meanings assigned to some phenomenon situation
moving individual and different people toward a shared, TV created understanding of how things are
a direct causal relationship between violent content and aggressive behavior
aggressive cues model
the idea that media portrayals can suggest that certain classes of people, such as women or foreigners, are acceptable targets for real-world aggression
idea that watching violence in the media reduces people's innate aggressive drive
idea that observed reinforcement operates in the same manner as actual reinforcement
notion that real-world incentives can lead observers to ignore the negative vicarious reinforcement they have learned to associate with a given behavior
less trusting of neighbors and more accepting of violence in our midst
application of a standardized image or concept to members of certain groups, usually based on limited info
social functions of media
surveillance: important events, topics of interest
interpretation: info processed and correlated
values transmission/socialization: teach and pass along ideas
entertainment: diversion as american lifestyle
affects of perception
characteristics, stereotypes, expectations, reference groups (needs)
scripts or schemata
stereotyped sequence of events in memory that are activated by observations or experiences in the present. helps organize incoming info. lots of info can be leftout if we have script
who we identify with. shape set or expectation. realities in your head are socially expected
establishes categories or frames in which to "see things" affects both verbal and nonverbal info. without a word (label) it is less likely to be perceived
arrived on north american shore 1638, only 18 years after the Plymouth rock landing
a type-writer like keyboard allowing printers to set type mechanically rather than manually
permitting printing from photographic plates rather than from heavy, fragile metal casts
inexpensive, concentrated on frontier and adventure stories, they attracted growing number of readers
Beadle and Company produced 4 million volumes
robert de graff
introduced idea of paperbacks to USA- more than 60% of all books are paperbacks
when someone in authority limits the publication of a book or access to it
wherein people posses the ability to read but are unwilling to do so, amounts to doing the censor's work for them
hard or softcover and include not only fiction and most nonfiction but cookbooks, biographies, art books, coffee-table books, and how-to books
the publication of books initially or exclusively online, offers a new way for writers ideas to be published
books downloaded in electronic form from the internet to computers (30%) of US sales
eliminating gatekeepers between artists and audiences
print on demand
another form of e-publishing, they store works digitally and, once ordered, a book can be instantly printed, bound, and sent
unsold books returned to publishers to be sold at great discount
digital books with the appearance of traditional books but content that is digitally stored and accessed
platform agnostic publishing
digital and hard copy books available for any and all readers
publishing houses were small operations, closely identified with their personnel. paid attention to detail
sale of the book, its contents, and even its characters to filmmakers, paperback publishers, book clubs, foreign publishers, and product producers
books based on popular television shows and movies
books based on an event currently on the front page and television screen
Mass communication involves not just one message but many identical messages.
What is one way mass communication differs from other forms of communication?
to embrace the richness of various cultural heritages
Why do many Americans enjoy moving from one bounded culture to another?
They believe that it will help people from different cultures learn about one another.
Why do some observers believe that globalization of media will have a positive effect?
Which of the following is one of the reasons why the erosion of distinctions among media has become so pervasive?