Choosing Health Ch. 12
Terms in this set (53)
A disease that comes on gradually and lasts a long time;many chronic disease can be managed but resist a complete cure.
A group of diseases in which the body does not make or use insulin properly, resulting in elevated blood glucose.
A hormone necessary for glucose transport into cells.
An abdominal organ that produces insulin as well as certain compounds helpful in digestion.
type 1 diabetes
A form of diabetes that usually begins early in life and arises when the pancreas produces insufficient insulin.
type 2 diabetes
A form of diabetes that usually begins later in life and arises when cells resist the effects of insulin.
A persistent state of elevated levels of blood glucose.
A persistent state of blood glucose levels higher than normal, but not yet high enough to qualify as diabetes.
cardiovascular disease (CVD)
Disease of the heart of blood vessels.
Vessels the transport blood away from the heart, delivering oxygen- rich blood to the body periphery and oxygen-poor blood to the lungs.
Vessels that transport blood toward the heart, delivering oxygen-poor blood from the body periphery or oxygen-rich blood from the lungs.
The heart's muscle tissue.
The two upper chambers of the heart that receive blood from the body periphery and lungs.
The two lower chambers of the heart that receive blood from the body periphery and lungs.
The smallest blood vessels, delivering blood and nutrients to individual cells and picking up wastes.
Condition characterized by narrowing of the arties because of inflammation, scarring, and the buildup of fatty deposits.
The force of the blood moving against the arterial walls.
hypertension (high blood pressure)
A persistent state of elevated blood pressure.
coronary heart disease (CHD) (coronary artery disease)
Disease characterized by atherosclerosis of the arteries that feed the heart;angina; and reduced blood supply to the myocardium.
Chest pain due to coronary heart disease.
myocardial infarction (MI) (heart attack)
A cardiac crisis in which a region of heart muscule is damaged or destroyed by reduced blood flow.
Any irregularity in the heart's rhythm
A slow arrhytmia
A fast arrhythmia
sudden cardiac arrest
A life-threatening cardiac crisis marked by loss of the heartbeat and unconsciosness.
A test that measures the heart's electrical activity.
An arterial treatment that uses a small balloon to flatten plaque deposits against the arterial wall.
coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)
A procedure to build new pathways for blood to flow around the areas of arterial blockage.
congestive heart failure
A gradual loss of heart function.
A medical emergency in which blood flow to or in the brain is impaired. Also called cerebrovascular accident (CVA).
A stroke caused by a blocked blood vessel.
A stroke caused by a leaking or ruptured blood vessel.
transient ischemic attakck (TIA)
A temporary episode of strokelike symptoms, indicative of high stroke risk.
Disorder characterized by abnormal levels of blood lipids, such as high LDL choleterol or low HDL cholesterol.
low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
A cholesterol-containing compound that, as it degrades, releases its cholesterol load into the bloodstream; often referred to as "bad cholesterol:.
high-density lipoprotein (HDL)
A cholesterol-containing compound that removes excess cholesterol from the bloodstream; often referred to as "good cholesterol".
A set of five unhealthy physical and metabolic conditions together linked to an increased risk for type 2 diabetes and other metabolic disease.
cardiometabolic risk (CMR)
A cluster of nine modifiable factors that identitfy individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
A group of diseases marked by the uncontrolled multiplication of abnormal cells.
A substance known to trigger DNA mutations that can leas to cancer.
A mutated gene that encourages the uncontrolled cell division that results in cancer.
An abnormal growth of tissue with no physiological function.
A tumor that grows slowly,does not spread, and is not cancerous.
A tumor that grows aggressively, invades surrounding tissue, and can spread to other parts of the body; all cancers are malignant.
The process by which a malignant tumor spreads to other body sites.
A test for cancer in which a small sample of the abnormal growth is removed and studied.
Cancer of tissues that line or cover the body.
Cancer of muscle or connective tissues.
central nervous system
Cancer of the brain or spinal cord.
Cancer of the lymphoid tissues.
/cancer arising in plasma cells, a type of immune cell, and invading the bone narrow.
Cancer of blood-forming tissue.
An especially aggressive form of skin cancer.