PLSC 2003 Exam 1
Terms in this set (60)
-the institutions and procedures by which a territory and its people are ruled
-the institution which has the legitimate use of physical force
-in a republic, the name we give to things we choose to do together
Government by One
-run by Legitimate=Monarchy
gov't in which sovereignty is actually or nominally embodied in one or several individual(s) reigning until death or abdication
-run by Perverse=Tyranny
cruel and oppressive gov't or rule
Government by the Few
-run by the Legitimate=Aristocracy
gov't where the leaders are meritorious and chosen by virtue of their birth into noble families
-run by the Perverse=Oligarchy
gov't where the individuals in power are not titled nobility but capture power either through military action or through a political party
Government by the Many
-run by the Legitimate=Democracy
gov't where all citizens share power
-run by the Perverse="Mobocracy"
gov't where rule or domination by the masses which reacts without reflection and jumps to conclusions without due deliberation
All citizens participate personally in making gov't decisions
Individuals, periodically chosen by citizens, who have the authority to decide what gov'ts do.
The activities associated with the governance of a country or other area, especially the debate or conflict among individuals or parties having or hoping to achieve power.
The study of the allocation of scarce resources for political ends, in an effort to form general theories or principles about how the world of politics works.
How we got here matters because it shapes who we are and how we do things today.
Rules and procedures that provide incentives for political behavior, thereby shaping politics
"gov't with the consent of the governed"
had the idea that "property" was also your intellectual, physical and emotional being (Life, Liberty & Justice or Pursuit of Happiness) and that everyone had right to this "property"
A form of gov't in which a group of sovereign states creates a central gov't for a common purpose, yet most legal power is retained in each member state.
(Least amount of power)
A form of gov't in which most, if not all, legal power is located in the central or national gov't.
(Most amount of power)
A form of gov't in which 2 or more layers share authority, each with certain powers and responsibilities assigned to it.
US has 2 layers: national gov't and state gov'ts.
Each level is protected from destruction by the constitution.
Key Principles and Failures of the Articles of Confederation
Believed that elites are the best fit to govern.
(Excessive democracy is dangerous)
Believed gov't show be close to the people, favored retention of power by state gov't and protection of individual rights.
Is the ideology go governing a society or state as a republic, where the head of state is a representative of the people who hold popular sovereignty rather than the people being subjects of the head of state.
Separation of Powers
An act of vesting the legislative, executive, and judicial powers of gov't in separate bodies.
Constitution divides powers between a central gov't and a regional gov't.
The state of being subject only to laws established for the good of the community, especially with regard to freedom of action and speech.
(Constitutional provisions, laws and practices that protect individuals FROM gov't interference)
Bill of Rights
The gov'ts responsibility for guaranteeing that all citizens are able to participate as equals in the practices of democratic life.
(What the gov't MUST do to protect me)
A mobilized, concentrated group of people focused on a particular policy objective.
Checks & Balances
A mechanism through which each branch of the national gov't is able to participate in and the national gov't is able to participate in and influence the activities of the other branches.
Ex: if the presidency doesn't like a law that has been passed by Congress, he may veto it.
The court can strike down laws that are deemed unconstitutional.
Powers specifically stated in the constitution.
AKA: delegated, enumerated, and explicit powers
Ex: right to declare war, to establish and regulate currency, postal service
Not specifically stated, but powers that are inferred from the express powers.
Necessary & Proper Clause
Constitutional clause that gives Congress the power to take all actions that are "necessary and proper" to the carrying out of its delegated powers.
Ex: elastic clause
Interstate Commerce Clause
The congress shall have the power to regulate commerce between other countries and between states.
Constitutional Supremacy Clause
Article 4 of the Constitution which states that laws passed by the national gov't and all treaties are the supreme law of the land and superior to all laws adopted by any state or any sub-visions.
Authority possessed by both states and national gov'ts, such as the power to levy taxes.
Powers derived from the 10th amendment to the constitution that are not specifically delegated to the national gov't or denied to the states.
Full Faith & Credit Clause
Requires that the states normally honor the public acts and judicial decisions that take place in other states.
( A lease, marriage license, or drivers license etc.)
Privileges & Immunities Clause
States cannot discriminate against someone from another state or give its own residents special privileges.
(Baldwin v. Montana states that this law applies to fundamental rights) -if you are not paying taxes to the state then you do not deserve the same rates or benefits that tax payers do instate.
States must extradite laws for crimes that were committed in another state.
Ex: if you commit a crime in OK but you go back home to AR, AR will arrest you and take you back to OK to be tried and arrested for your crime.
The process by which various protections in the national Bill of Rights were applied to the states (through the 14th amendment's provisions), and citizens' liberties were guaranteed protection by the STATE as well as by the national gov't.
Voting Rights & Restrictions
Allowed black men to vote
Allowed women to vote
You are allowed to vote if your grandfather was allowed to vote: this was directed towards slaves and possibly the poor.
Having to pay in order to vote was removed by the 24th amendment.
Allowed political parties to pick who they wanted to vote for their primary election
minorities could vote during the general elections but that did not really count for anything
Prevent majority-minority district.
You cannot draw voting boundaries based on racial premise.
Brown v. Board of Education
Equal employment opportunity commission
-not to be discriminated against when looking for housing
-Fair Housing Act 1978
certain races being kept out of neighborhoods
Fundamental Freedoms Doctrine
A test used by the Supreme Court in a racial discrimination case and other cases involving civil liberties and civil rights that places the burden of proof on the gov't rather than on the challengers to show that the law in question in constitutional.
A test used by the Supreme Court in gender discrimination cases that places the burden of proof partially on the gov't and partially on the challenges to show that the law is unconstitutional.
A situation in which the competitive structures of a capitalist economy & society fail to provide a commodity deemed worthy or needed by the gov't and people.
Types of Market Failures
-Unprovided Public Goods
-Externalities/Spillover Effects: unintended consequences for businesses (Tyson)
Ex: driver doesn't know that the car explodes when rear ended, but Ford knows that it will and sells it anyway
The state or quality of being obscene; obscene behavior, language, or images.
This is not protected by Freedom of Speech.
The principles, often written, on which social laws are based.
The tools gov'ts use to achieve the goals/ values/ needs that society has deemed important.
Types of Public Policy
Brown v. Board of Education (1954)
Court found that school segregation violate the equal protection clause of the US Constitution.
Bakke v. University of California Board of Regents (1978)
Courts decide that race can be used as one of the many factors when deciding college admissions.
US v. Lopez (1995)
Shelley v. Kraemer (1948)
Supreme Court ruled that courts could not enforce racial covenants on real estate.
Marbury v. Madison (1803)
Established the principle of "judicial review" — that the Supreme Court has the power to declare acts of Congress unconstitutional.
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