AP Psych Unit 2
Terms in this set (63)
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it
*"I knew it all along"
A hypothesis that has been tested with a significant amount of data
A testable prediction, often implied by a theory
* 1st step of an experiment
A statement of the procedures used to define research variables
*helps explain procedure
An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
*study of 1 person
A study, generally in the form of an interview or questionnaire, that provides researchers with information about how people think and act.
*similar to a quiz
the whole group that you want to study and describe
A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
Observing and recording behavior in naturally occurring situations without trying to manipulate and control the situation
*observing something without changing anything about the situation
A measure of the relationship between two variables
A statistical index of the relationship between two things (from -1 to +1)
*degree of relationship
The perception of a relationship where none exists
A research method in which an investigator manipulates one or more factors to observe the effect on some behavior or mental process
Assigning participants to experimental and control conditions by chance, thus minimizing preexisting differences between those assigned to the different groups
An experiment in which neither the participant nor the researcher knows whether the participant has received the treatment or the placebo
*neither participants know
Experimental results caused by expectations alone; any effect on behavior caused by the administration of an inert substance or condition, which is assumed to be an active agent.
*thinking something is affecting you when it isn't
(statistics) a variable whose values are independent of changes in the values of other variables
*depended on change
A factor other than the independent variable that might produce an effect in an experiment.
*having another effect on results
the outcome factor the cariable that may change in response to manipulations of the independent variables --what you are measuring
* response to manipulations (ex. obesity rates)
Measure of central tendency that uses most frequently occurring score.
* average between results
A measure of center in a set of numerical data. The median of a list of values is the value appearing at the center of a sorted version of the list - or the mean of the two central values if the list contains an even number of values.
Distance between highest and lowest scores in a set of data.
A computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.
*how close or far from middle
the symmetrical bell-shaped curve that describes the distribution of many physical and psychological attributes. Most scores fall near the average, and fewer and fewer scores lie near the extremes.
A statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance
A written agreement to participate in a study made by an adult who has been informed of all the risks that participation may entail.
*permission to participate
A verbal description of the true nature and purpose of a study
*summary of what the study will consist of
A part of the population you are studying.
*group you are studying
Overconfidence refers to the tendency to be very sure of a fact and later finding that the objective reality was different. It remains to be studied how personality and mental abilities affect this Overconfidence, but tests show that when asked difficult questions about an unfamiliar topic, individuals believe they will have a low percentage of errors when they actually end up with a lot more mistakes.
Do you know anyone who identifies things that support some position or opinion they have but ignore information that contradicts it? If so, you know someone who is exhibiting the confirmation bias, which is a tendency for a person to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions.
All tests are designed to measure something; hopefully something specific. If the test does indeed measure what it is intended to measure, then we can say that the test is valid (or has validity).
*results match up with your hypothesis
Reliability refers to the extent to which a test or other instrument is consistent in its measures.
When conducting research there are lots of factors to consider. Psychologists may want to study, for example, the effect of some new test on all college students in the world (which would be considered the "population"), but this is obviously not possible. Instead, what they do is test a smaller group of college students, known as a sample. In this example, everyone who could possibly be a participant in the study (meaning, all college students) is part of the population. Thus, a sample is a relatively small number of participants drawn from an entire population.
*smaller group within the population
When conducting a study, a researcher selects a relatively small group of participants (a sample) from an entire population of all possible participants (for example, selecting college students at a couple of colleges from all college students in the world).
*Ideally, the researcher would have participants with characteristics that closely match the characteristics of the whole population - this is called having a Representative Sample.
Stratified Sampling is a sampling method (a way of gathering participants for a study) used when the population is composed of several subgroups that may differ in the behavior or attribute that you are studying.
*random selection of population
This is one type of experimental design that is very similar to the True Experimental Design with one key difference. If you recall, for an experimental design to be classified as a True Experimental Design, it must meet two criteria; 1) random assignment of participants to groups, and 2) manipulation of an internal variable (IV). A
*Quasi- Experimental Design is exactly the same EXCEPT that there is no random assignment of participants to groups.
Ex Post Facto Study
An ex post facto design is a type of research study in which groups of participants are determined by pre-existing conditions and events from the past.
*"after the fact"
A longitudinal study is somewhat similar to a repeated measures study but in this case people are study and restudied over a period of time (as opposed to studied across different experimental conditions as is the case with a repeated measures study).
*The longitudinal study design is good for looking at the effects or changes over a long period of time, usually as people age.
Cross Sectional Study
A cross-sectional study is one type of study in which people of different ages are examined at the same time(s). This is usually done with cohorts, so that researchers can examine how people of different ages perform, behave, or respond to a particular function.
*study of different ages
In research, an experimenter bias, also known as research bias, occurs when a researcher unconsciously affects results, data, or a participant in an experiment due to subjective influence. It is difficult for humans to be entirely objective which is not being influenced by personal emotions, desires, or biases.
The Single-Blind research method is a specific research procedure in which the researchers (and those involved in the study) do not tell the participants if they are being given a test treatment or a control treatment.
*This is done in order to ensure that participants don't bias the results by acting in ways they "think" they should act.
Sampling Bias refers to errors that can occur in research studies by not properly selecting participants for the study. Study participants should be chosen completely randomly within the criteria of the study but without factors that might influence the results.
*participants aren't random
Social Desirability Bias
Social Desirability Bias is a cognitive bias (a general pattern or tendency to think a certain way) in which people respond to questioning in ways that make them seem more favorable or appealing to others. In this case, people over-report their positive behaviors or qualities while under-reporting undesirable or or negative behaviors and qualities.
*reforming your personality for the experiment or survey
The Hawthorne effect, also known as Subject Reactivity, can be defined as changes in behavior resulting from attention participants believe they are getting from researchers, and not the variable(s) manipulated by the researchers (in the Hawthorne case, the amount of light in the work environment).
*attention received during experiment alters behavior
A survey is a method for collecting information or data as reported by individuals. This is a type of data collection known as self-report data, which means that individuals complete the survey (or provide the information) themselves.
*collection of data
Measure of the amount of responses which take place during a particular time period
*responses in X amount of time
Descriptive statistics are used by researchers to summarize and "describe" data found during research. Typically researchers deal with lots of data and descriptive statistics provide a way for the researchers to summarize the main properties of a large group of data into just a few numbers.
*summaries the stats
Frequency distribution is a simple (basic, not necessarily easy) type of statistic that people often make into a much bigger deal than it really is.
*Let's say you are in a class with 100 people, and you have just taken a test. The teacher then tells you that on the test, there were 20 "A"s, 25 "B"s, 35 "C"s, 15 "D"s, and 5 "F"s. What the teacher has just given you is a frequency distribution; a breakdown of how all the scores fell into the different categories or ranges that the overall score was broken into.
Measures of central tendency
Measures of central tendency (mean, median, and mode) are statistics that describe the center of a data set.
* describes stats better
Regression of the mean
Regression toward the mean is the tendency for scores to average out. In this case extreme scores tend to happen rarely and seem to fall back toward the average (the mean).
*For example, a golfer with a handicap of 2 averages a score of 73 (for example). This score represents the golfer's average score. On some days he goes wild and shoots a 63 which is awesome, but extreme. Over time the golfer will have many more scores around his average than far away from it as the scores tend to regress toward the mean of 73.
In statistics an outlier is a distribution point (for example, a number or a score) that is much further away from any other distribution points. Outliers can skew measurements so that the results are not representative of the actual numbers. An outlier can occur through natural variability or because of a problem with the test.
*An example would be a very hard test given to a small class of 5 students. The test scores were 50,50,50,50, and 100. The average test score would be 60 although almost everyone scored less than that. The score of 100 is an outlier.
In a positively skewed distribution, the mode is always less than the mean and median.
*mode<mean & median
In a negatively skewed distribution, the mean is usually less than the median because the few low scores tend to shift the mean to the left.
Measures of variability
Measures of Variability are statistics that describe the amount of difference and spread in a data set.
* These measures include variance, standard deviation, and standard error of the mean.
Normal Distribution is a statistical term frequently used in psychology and other social sciences to describe how traits are distributed through a population.
A Positive Correlation is a steady relationship between two variables in the same direction, meaning that as the value of one variable increases, the value of the other increases as well. (And as the value of one variable decreases, so does the other).
*For example, a child's income level and his or her performance in school are positively correlated; children from wealthier or more financially stable homes tend to do better in school.
A negative correlation is an inverse relationship between two variables, meaning that as the value of one variable increases, the value of the other decreases.
* For example, the number of classes a student misses is negatively correlated with his or her class grade. As Jason skips more classes, his grades will worsen.
Unlike descriptive statistics, inferential statistics provide ways of testing the reliability of the findings of a study and "inferring" characteristics from a small group of participants or people (your sample) onto much larger groups of people (the population).
*Descriptive statistics just describe the data, but inferential let you say what the data mean. An example of inferential statistics is the analysis of variance (ANOVA).
In statistics, sampling error refers to the amount of inaccuracy that is estimated to exist within a sample population of the trait being measured.
In statistical hypothesis testing, the p-value is the probability of obtaining a test statistic at least as extreme as the one that was actually observed, assuming that the null hypothesis is true.
Institutional Review Board (IRB)
An Institutional Review Board (IRB) is a committee established to review and approve research involving human subjects. The purpose of the IRB is to ensure that all human subject research be conducted in accordance with all federal, institutional, and ethical guidelines.
*keeps everything in line
Confidentiality is a part of the ethical guidelines of psychologists and means that information between a patient and a therapist cannot be shared with anyone.
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