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systems set 1
Terms in this set (1126)
Describe the purpose of filtration systems
Removing solid particles from a fluid by passing the fluid through a filtering medium that traps the particles
The solids separated and/or removed from a centrifuge
Define Filter Aid
A material that coats a filter to prevent blinding
What is Breakthrough?
A condition that occurs when the cake gets past the medium
A ___________ is usually little more than a metal screen set across a line to remove dirt, rust, or other trash from a flowing liquid
____________ buildup is observed to determine when the filters should be taken off line and cleaned
List three factors that affect differential pressure in a filter system
Cake buildup, increased flow rate, viscocity
Explain the purpose of drying systems
the process of removing liquid from a solid or a gas by either heat transfer or the use of an adsorbent
Drying is usually accomplished by _____________ or ______________
use of heat
Explain some consequences of critical dryer failures
can result in both a quality control issue and a customer satisfaction issue
The four conditions that affect the evaporation rate of a tank's contents are
Vapor space above the liquid
Vapor space ventilation
Available liquid surface area
Explain why product evaporation is a concern in tank farms
The tank's contents represent money
Tank contents that evaporate and leak into the atmosphere contribute to air pollution
The number and type of valves on a tank will depend on the tank's ____________ and the ____________ of tank.
A tank venting hydrocarbons to the atmosphere might be a violation of _____________
Clean Air Act
The purpose of safety instrumentation on a tank is to protect a tank from ____________, ___________, and ______________
Overflow, overpressure, and fire
Describe the two classes of instrumentation associated with tanks
A tank is usually blanketed with ______________ or ______________
Nitrogen or Natural gas
Explain the differences between an atmospheric tank and a pressurized tank
Atmospheric tanks operate very close to atmospheric pressure, they are good for storing nonvolatile materials and some hydrocarbons (Roof tanks)
Pressure tanks are sphere or bullet shape, used to store hazardous or volatile materials under pressure
Floating roof tanks are the preferred atmospheric tank for storing _____________ materials
List three types of blending systems
Consists of a hollow shell filled with small objects packed closely together. Simplest and most commonly used to extraction column
Uses baffle trays to break up the counter-current flow to provide mixing.
Newest and most complicated extraction columns. Used when confronted with a difficult separation.
Separating two material from a mixture or solution is one of the most frequently encountered problems in chemical process operations.
An extraction process solvent is generally a liquid that is used to separate a component of either a gas or a liquid.
When using a mechanical column for extraction______ promote mixing of the materials.
During the extraction process, bubble cap trays perform similarly to_____ trays.
List the three main classifications of extraction columns.
The name given to the original solution before the extraction takes place.
The extract and raffinate phases must be separated by allowing them to lay out.
All chemical must be kept well below their boiling points to avoid formation of any vapors.
What is the boilers main objective?
-to deliver steam at desired pressure and temperature.
What two inputs are required for the boiler?
fuel and water
The principle of steam powered generators is?
water in the boiler absorbs the heat energy produced by the combustion of fuel, converting the water steam at the appropriate temperature and pressure.
A boiler converts chemical energy contained in__________ to heat energy contained in water, generating steam.
fuel (natural gas, coal, fuel oil)
Heat energy contained in 1 pound of steam at a certain temperature and pressure is called?
enthalpy (h) and is measured in Btu/lb.
What is the first unit to be placed online in a plant and the last to be shut down?
steam boiler (heart of the plant)
The most cost effective form of energy for a plant is from?
Extensive water treatment is necessary for steam production to-
prevent impurities that would carry over to the boiler feed water causing scale, corrosion, carryover, and foaming.
Steam generating components:
furnace and burners
feedwater chemical treatment system
Other names for a steam generator include
steam boiler or boiler
A steam generator consists of two sections
the boiler and the furnace
The steam generators boiler is the
water-side of the steam generator
The steam generators furnace consists of the
boiler enclosure (the building that houses the boiler), in which fuel and air are burned and converted into hot gases before passing out the stack to the atmosphere.
The furnace is the_____ side of the steam boiler?
Boilers are divided into what two types?
fire tube boilers and water tube boilers
In a fire tube boiler, fire or heat is applied to the _________ of the ________ while the water is circulated on the outside of the tubes and heated to steam.
In a water tube boiler water is ________ the ______, and fire is on the outside.
Define steam drum-
central piece of equipment in the standard water tube oiler system, where boiler feedwater enters the boiler.
steam drums are maintained at what water level?
The internal parts of the steam drum include-
internal feedwater header
internal chemical feed line
internal continuous blowdown line
A steam drums internal feedwater header distributes-
the incoming feedwater makeup along a portion of the length of the drum.
A steam drums internal chemical feed line is-
a pipe with openings at measured intervals for feeding chemicals into the water.
A steam drums internal continuous blowdown line is-
another perforated line extending approximately one-half of the drum length into the steam drum.
The steam drums internal continuous blowdown line-
maintains the concentration of dissolved solids in the steam drum at a certain level.
The steam drums internal continuous blowdown line prevents-
excessive high amounts of dissolved solids from accumulating. These solids would cause the boiler water to foam and small droplets of water to carry over into exiting steam.
Water droplets can be caused by improper function of the steam drums internal continuous blowdown line, what damage can the water droplets cause?
The water droplets contain dissolved solids, which can cause harmful deposits in the superheater tubes and or turbine blades.
What is the normal rate of blowdown
1.0% of the feedwater-- or for every 1000 puns of feedwater fed to boiler, about 10 pounds of boiler water is continuously removed through blowdown.
The steam drums cyclone separators are-
vaned buckets located near the top of the stem drum. The vanes in the separators give the steam a cyclonic action that slings water entrained against the inner walls of the buckets.
The steam drums chevron separator is-
a series of corrugated plates in frnt of the steam line that exits the steam drum
What are the two portions of a boiler?
boilers and furnace.
mud settles at the bottom of the drum and is then separated.
Dearation tanks are the source of feed water to pumps. Dearation is achieved through boiling.
seperates steam from the boiler and leads it to the superheater
use the steam to heat the feed water.
why are blowers necessary
soot and ash collect on the wall of the boiler. blowers remove the soot and ash.
what are the two types of fans used in the boiler
forced draft and induced draft
what is the purpose of boiler blowdown
to remove mud from the boiler
purpose of flash tank
provide low pressure steam to the aerattor
list three elements of the boiler control system
combustion control, steam header pressure, and feed level
What is meant by the term swell
When large quantities of steam are needed, the excess volume is taken up by the flash tank.
What is the purpose of fans in the boiler system?
the fans are used to provide air to the fire of the fire. Both types of fans are used at teh same time.
List three hazards associated with operating the boiler system
overpressure, low water levels, and rupture
list three boiler feed water chemical concerns
scale, corrosion, foaming
what is the purpose of backwashing?
to remove sediments covering the filterbed
list three uses of steam
leaking steam into the process fluid (steam sipping), powering mechanical turbines, and to provide heat in heat exchangers.
steam existing at a temperature higher than the max saturation point
bubbles that escape above the boiling point
list two ways taht high pressure steam can become medium pressure steam.
letdown stations and byproducts of generators
why is condensate considered a valuable resource?
it is highly pure and usually a high temperature
explain corrosion coupons
corrosion coupons are made of the same material as heat exchangers. Damage done to them is usually similar to the inside of pipes.
common for electric motors
used for computers lighting and heating
used for large motors
drops in voltage that cause backup generators to start, burn out electric motors, and cause loss of instrumentation
burn out equipment
where are the circuit breakers located ?
Descrive the two types of protective bereakers
One type is to protect against surges. The other is to protect against continous heating.
What are the four types of backup power systems availiable to a plant?
emergency generator, uninterruptable power system, steam generators, and cogenerators.
What is the function of a transformer?
it steps up or steps down a voltage
what is the purpose of a switch gear?
to change from one voltage to another
What is the purpose of explosion proof equipment?
equipment designed to withstand explosions
intrinsically safe equipment
equipment that releases only small sparks to prevent explosion
what is the function of the relief gas system?
to eliminate waste gas in an environmentally friendly manner. It is also used to remove gasses in large quantities in times of emergency
where to waste gasses come from
reactions or heating of materials
components of a relief gas system
Relief valves and rupture discs, relief header system, knockout drum with pump, vapor recovery unit, and flare or thermal oxidizer.
to remove liquids from going to the flare
why is venting necessary on some vessels?
to remove waste gasses
what is the purpose of maintaining positive pressure in the relief header and subheader?
to prevent waste gasses from enetering the relief header and subheader.
what are the two monitors on a flare>
one to check and see if the pilot light is burning. The other to check hydrocarbon levels
what is the purpose of the seam nozzles on the flare
to reduce smoking
what is the purpose of refrigeration systems?
To remove heat from a process
What are the four basic components of a refrigetation sytem?
Compressor, condensor, evaporator, and refrigeran
Explain how a mechanical refrigeration system differs from an absorbption system?
Mechanical uses compressors for movement, absorption uses a coooling water stream.
What are the four steps of a cooling water system?
The addition of energy the rejection of heat, expanision and heat absorption
What are three safety concerns from refrigeration?
Vibration, moving parts, noise, toxic and flammable chemicals
Two safety hazards to operators
freezing and thermal burns
what is a BTU?
the ammount of energy required to heat a pound of water 1 degree Fahrenheit.
seperates a feed into two products
bubble cap tray
thin discs guided by rails
tube that runs from one tray to another, contains hot water
used to create contact between air and water
a hollow cillinder
two towers, one to seperate additional heavy stuff that couldnt be seperated in the first tower
second tower to sepearate using a solvent
removes liquids from the vapors going out the top of the distillation column.
What is the purpose of a furnace?
to heat the process fluid
what are the two components that make a furnace?
shell and tube heat exchanger and a reactor
what is the heat measued in from furnace?
What is the heat released by combustion called?
what is the function of furnace refractory
heat resistant materials to serve as insulatin at the inside of the furnace
Explain how heat refractory can be damaged
through improper heating and cooling procedures
radiant heat accounts for _ % of heat transfered ina furnace
What are two ways that a furnace tubes can be damaged
saggaing and flame impingement
what are three chemical meaurements of a furnace?
NO2, O2, and combustibles
what are two advantages of an extraction system?
They can be performed at low temperatures. They save money.
what is the most common extraction system
the simplest extraction unit is a __
single batch unit
two flow types in a extraction system
concurrent and countercurrent
what are the two purposes of the extraction solvent
absorb the solute and purify the process
what are three desirable properties in solvents
The solute must dissolve the solvent, it must not dissolve the raffinate, it must be economical and easily recoverable.
what are several factors that effect the emulsion process?
Emulsion, flooding, interfaces, and saturation
the solution formed when the solute dissolves that solvent
the feed solution minus the raffinate
1. The source of Fire Water is generally either __________or _________.
river or lake
2. Fire water pumps are usually what kind of pumps? _________________ or _______________.
positive displacement or centrifugal
3. Another name for fire monitors is _________________ _______________.
4. What is the purpose of an equalization basin?
For dilution and mixing of waste water and to adjust the pH levels
5. Where in the waste water system do the aerobic microbes eat the solids and oil?
In the aeration stage, aeration basin
7. How can a waste water plant be hazardous?
Basins and or clarifiers, you can fall in or drown, hazardous chemicals
8. The storm water system gets its name from storms that pass through the area? True or False?
9. When we monitor the COD. What are we measuring?
chemical oxygen demand
10. When we are measuring the psig from a pump we are measuring _______ ___ _______ ______ ______.
pounds per square inch gauge
11. If your Supervisor asked you to find out if the equalization basin is acid or basic what parameter would you report back to him and what tool would you probably use.
pH levels 1 thru 14 and pH meter
12. On the back of this paper, describe in 30 words or more why it is necessary to have a waste water system in refineries and chemical processing plants.
In order to protect the environment and our water sources, it is critical that we monitor and treat the waste water from the facility. This ensures proper disposal of water used in the facility and keeps harmful pollutants from entering our natural water sources. This water can also be recycled into the facility for further use, thus requiring careful monitoring and treatment, in order to avoid equipment damage caused by hazardous water
1. What is a Cation?
atoms or group of atoms having a net positive charge
2. What is an Anion?
atoms or group of atoms having a net negative charge
3. What is an Ion?
Atom or group of atoms that either has a net positive charge or a net negative charge. Not equal charges
5. Describe Adsorption
Exothermic reaction, ions stick to the surface of the resin
6. Describe the regeneration process in a demineralizer bed.
A loaded bed is washed with a strong acid solution to remove all Na+ ions, by replacing them with H+ ions donated by the acid
7. What is Process water?
Raw or untreated water that has been filtered of suspended solids
9. Deionized water is used for boiler feed water. True or False
10. When Chlorine is used to treat water an occasional pH adjustment is needed. True or False
1. Define relative humidity
water vapor amount in the air at a given temperature
2. Define the term "Psychrometry"
study of cooling by evaporation
3. Why do we recycle cooling water in the cooling tower.
to preserve water, protect environment, expensive to treat water, high water cost
4. Heat Load is one of the major influences on the efficiency of a cooling tower. True or False
5. Why are most heat exchangers built of carbon steel?
cheap, readily available, good temp and press rating
7. Define the term "Scale" in a cooling tower.
a deposit of an inorganic crystalline nature
8. In a cooling tower Conductivity is directly related to _________________.
the amount of total dissolved solids within the water solution
9. Free mineral acidity occurs at what pH?
10. Define the term "Blow Down" when referring to a cooling tower.
replacement of the cooling tower water
11. Evaporation removes ___________ __________ from hot water
thermal energy or heat load
12. What is "Windage" or "Drift" relating to a cooling tower?
loss of water via droplets carried out by air
1. Because it is air, Plant air is not a critical utility. True or False
2. What is the purpose of the "receiver in a Plant Air System?
to knock out any moisture in the air
3. Instrument Air is usually supplied at ______ psig.
4. What system acts as the backup system for instrument air if its compressors should fail?
5. Name two Companies that supply nitrogen to plants
Air liquide or Air Products
6. What is the purpose of a letdown station in a Nitrogen system?
To reduce the pressure of the pipeline as needed to the required pressure for various uses
7. Describe a situation where nitrogen is used to cool down a process.
during shutdowns, to reduce the temp of process catalyst
8. What is the advantage of using nitrogen in that situation?
inert gas, saves time during shutdown
9. Why are the connections used on nitrogen hoses different than those used on regular plant air?
to prevent operator error
10. What is the purpose of nitrogen blanketing in a tank?
provide a positive pressure seal
11. What is the difference in instrument air and plant air?
instrument air is free of all moisture and is used at a lower pressure
12. What does SCBA stand for?
Self contained breathing apparatus
13. What is starting air?
Dried to prevent freezing
1. The pilots for the flare stack use ________ gas.
2. CH4 is called?
4. What is the WOBBE Index?
used to compare the combustion energy output of different composition fuel gases in a furnace
5. How are sulfur compounds removed from a gas in a processing plant?
use of scrubbers
6. Give the chemical formula for sulfur dioxide ________, Sulfur Trioxide _______, and Sulfuric Acid ______________.
SO2, SO3, H2SO4
7. H2S is the chemical formula ________________.
8. Natural gas has no odors, so odorants are used so leaks can be detected. These odorants usually consist of ________________.
9. What is a smart pig used for in a pipeline?
used to determine thickness, check for evidence of corrosion and clean the piping of deposits
1. Boilers are usually divided into two types _______ and __________.
fire tube and water tube
2. Why are soot blowers necessary?
to keep the soot from obstructing the passage of flue gas. To keep the soot from building up on the waterwall tubes and acting as an insulator, thus reducing efficiency
3. Two types of fans used on a boiler system are the ____________ and ____________.
forced draft fan and induced draft fan
4. The function of the flash tank is to provide ______________ to the deaerator.
low pressure steam
5. What is meant by the term "swell"?
instant increase in drum level when the firing rate undergoes a steep increase
6. Explain the purpose of the boiler's forced draft and induced draft fans.
control total air flow to the boiler
7. A boiler furnace has been running, but then its burners shut down. If fuel gas leaks into the furnace, the primary source of ignition for an explosion is __________________.
hot walls of the furnace, light off explosion
8. The problem with too high a boiler water pH is that it causes _______________.
9. The choice for boiler water treatment is based on ________ and ____________.
feedwater chemistry and boiler operating pressure
10. Explain how water is filtered during the filtration stage.
Thru vertical pressure filters that remove all remaining suspended material. Water flows downward thru the filtration medium
12. Describe how pH is controlled in a boiler
caustic (sodium hydroxide) is added to the boiler to maintain the correct pH
13. List the six stages of treatment of raw water to make boiler feedwater.
(FISTDC)1. Clarification 2. Sedimentation 3. Filtration 4. Ion exchange 5. Deaeration 6. Treatment in the boiler
Clarification reduces the suspended solids.
Sedimentation reduces dissolved solids and hardness.
Filtration removes the remaining suspended solids.
17. Ion exchange
Ion exchange further reduces the hardness and the alkalinity.
Deaeration eliminates dissolved gases.
19. Treatment in the boiler
Internal treatment inside the boiler neutralizes any hardness, silica, or oxygen remaining in the feedwater.
6. What does the word Aerobic mean?
4. What is a Atom?
smallest unit of matter that defines the chemical elements
8. Why do we add chlorine to potable water
it is a biocide that kills bacteria
6. Corrosion inhibitors used in cooling water systems are called ______________.
3. What is the definition of a British Thermal Unit?
heat up 1 lb of water, 1 degree F
10. Acid rain would have a pH of ________________.
5 or lower
11. The purpose of deaeration is to remove gases, especially _______ and __________.
oxygen and carbon dioxide
7. Explain the purpose of piping feet on a steam header.
allow the steam header pipe to move during thermal expansion
Power expressed as volts times amperes is ______.
George Westinghouse solved the problem of electrical transmission with ____
What is Halogen?
Group of Non-Metallic Metals (BIFCA)
Bromine, Iodine, Fluorine, Chlorine, Astatine
When compressing gas ______ is generated in the gas.
The purpose of weirs is to maintain a certain _____ of liquid in a tray
Distillation is the physical process which separates chemicals by _______ _______
CH14#2 Each furnace is two pieces of equipment a _____ and a ______.
Shell and tube exchanger and a chemical reactor.
The most common extraction system is the "" system
liquid to liquid
Feed solution minus the extracted solute, the overhead stream, free of solute
The new solution formed when the solvent dissolves the solute and now contains it. bottoms material containing the solvent and that solute
material that is dissolved in another material in liquid-liquid extraction. the solvent is the chemical that is added to extract the solute from the original solution.
2 types of adsorbent systems are?
" " is the injection of steam or some gas under the surface of a liquid for the purpose of agitating the liquid.
What is a Reformate
Making aromatics and paraffins at higher octane
When we add an inhibitor is used in a reaction we are trying to "" undesirable reactions from taking place.
In a catalytic reforming process we are converting paraffin hydrocarbon molecules in a naptha stream to aromatics and isoparaffins to get "" "" numbers.
The discharged liquid from a centrifuge is called
Draw a Benzene Ring
Paraxylene is a " ". Which is a group of " " containing one or more " ". The most famous is " "
Aromatic, Hydrocarbon, Rings, Benzene
What is a flocculent aid?
Cause suspended solids to fall out more aggressively
Drying is accomplished by "" or "".
Heat or Adsorption
The number and type of valves on a tank will depend on the tank's ______________ and the ______________ of tank.
shape and pressure rating
partially refined hydrocarbons
naphtha that has been cracked to increase octane
Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether
Ethanol - Drinking Alcohol
Under SARA Title 3, the generator of a hazardous waste is responsible for the
waste from _________ to _________.
cradle to grave
4 commonly used adsorbents are
SAMI - Silica Gels, activated carbon, molecular sieves, ion-exchanging resins
5 Process control variables
Pressure, Temperature, Level, Flow, Analyzer
what is offgas?
a mixture of flammable hydrocarbons vented or purged from vessels
What is methane
natural gas used within process and refining facilities as
-fuel for fired systems
-fuel for flare pilot lights
What is sweet natural gas?
gas with low sulfur volume
What is acid rain?
the formation of low PH rainwater when products such as sulfuric acid, nitrous oxides, and nitric acid are released into the atmosphere
What is backing in?"
the use of fuel gas or some other unit material to sweep purge gas from a vessel or piping into the flare header
What is a letdown station?"
reduce pipeline pressure as needed to the required pressure for various uses
What is fuel gas?"
a mixture of the natural gas supplied from a vendor and the offgases produced within the plant process itself
What is a Tedlar bag?"
a bag made from strong clear plastic used to collect fuel gas samples
What is a pig?"
a device that travels through the pipeline by pneumatic or hydraulic pressure
What is relative humidity?"
the amount of moisture in the air compared to what the air can hold at that temperature. When the air cant hold all the moisture, it condenses as dew
What is tower fill?"
breaks up the water particles within the tower to accomplish intimate air and water contact
What is a Base/Sump?"
it receives the cooled water that falls down through the fill.
What are tower cells?
individual cooling towers
What is corrosion?"
the destruction of metal by chemical or electrochemical reactions.
What is scale?"
a deposit of an inorganic crystalline nature"
What is fouling?"
the accumulation of suspended organic or inorganic materials in the water.
What is blowdown?" .
the removal of water from a circulating system that prevents dissolved solids from concentrating and forming scale
What is make up?" .
water added to the system to make up for evaporated or lost water to maintain proper vessel levels
What is potable water?"
What is process water?"
raw or untreated water that has been filtered of suspended solids
What is a utility station?"
an area with discharge connections for various plant utilities (steam,air,water,nitrogen)
What is demineralization?"
the removal of dissolved solids from water via an ion exchange resin
What are anions?"
negatively charged ions
What are cations?"
positively charged ions
What is ion exchange?"
the adsorption and de-adsorption of selected ions on an activated solid surface.
What is breakthrough?
when a fixed bed desiccant or adsorbent becomes sufficiently saturated with contaminates such that significant amounts of contaminates manage to pass completely through the bed
What is regeneration?
a wash with a strong acid solution to remove all Na+ ions, replacing them with H+ ions donated by the acid
What is channeling?" .
when water finds a quick path, or channel, through the huge mass of resin beads in the resin bed
What is a jockey pump?"
a pump used in the fire water system that operates in on-off mode to maintain fire water pressure within a specified range
What is a Post Indicator Valve (PIV)"
"valve actuators for underground valves to fire protection systems used to isolate a fire protection for maintenance, testing, or after an incident
What is a fire monitor/water cannon"
firfighting devices mounted on fire hydrants located throughout the plant
What is a deluge system?"
a process that drenches an area with large amounts of water to extinguish a fire or to quickly cool equipment
What are water wall curtains?"
a wall of water to separate one area from another during an emergency
What is a API separator?"
a rectangular trough or basin in which wastewater flows horizontally while free oil rises to the surface and is skimmed off and sent to a recovery unit: used to remove oil from wastewater
What is a Equalization Basin?"
a retention basin used to dilute extremely high concentration wastewater; mixes all plant wastewater into one homogeneous mass
What is a Aeration Basin?"
reservoirs in which wastewater is aerated to support biological treatment by aerobic digesters (bacteria)
What is Outfall?"
a pipe or conduit of some type that directs treated wastewater back into the environment
What are battery limits?"
certain areas around equipment
What is Storm Water?"
Explain the purpose of the plant air receiver."
operates like a knockout drum to remove moisture and oil"
Describe two ways the instrument air system differs from the plant air system."
instrument air is dried and is usually supplied at 105 psig
The backup gas for instrument air is"
Nitrogen is supplied to plants either by or"
pipeline or truck
List four uses of plant nitrogen"
What is plant air?"
provides the air necessary for operating plant equipment, tools, and for drying equipment within the operating units
what is a knockout drum?"
used to slow down gasses and allow liquids to fall out of the gas stream
What is a compressor bank?"
A steam turbine compressor and a electric motor driven compressor
What is a receiver?"
a storage tank that removes moisture and oil
What is instrument air?"
is used to operate pneumatic instruments and controllers, drive equipment, transport material, purge equipment. it is supplied at 105 psig and has no moisture
What is breathing air?"
air stored in an scba used by emergency responders and firefighters during a fire, or when smoke or toxins are present
What is an SCBA?"
a pack that holds a bottle filled with breathing air"
What is a nitrogen blanket?"
it is used to keep air out of a tank to prevent an explosion
What is mothballing?"
when a system or pipeline is filled with nitrogen and sealed off, preventing corrosion for a period of time
What is a header?"
a distribution system
Describe the most common type of cooling water system. "
List three functions of the cooling water system."
Control heat energy, conserve energy, increase production efficiency
Three basic enemies of the cooling water system are"
corrosion, scale, and fouling
The efficiency of the heat exchanger depends upon
the cleanliness of the exchanger, water velocity, and fluid temperatures
List four major factors that influence the efficiency of a cooling tower."
-water flow rate pumped over the tower
-airflow rate moved through the tower
-air to water distribution ratio
intense corrosion at a single point, causing a deep penetration of the metal
Explain how corrosion is controlled in cooling water systems"
a deposit of inorganic crystalline nature
How is scale prevented?"
through the use of acids and deposit control agents
the accumulation of suspended organic or inorganic materials in the water
what is the function of tower blowdown?"
to flush high mineral concentration water down the drain and replace it with fresh water
Potable water is used for"
drinking, cooking, bathing, and safety showers and eye wash stations
List two duties of process technicians on potable water systems"
monitoring pumps to ensure proper operation of the system and change distribution filters
List four system variables monitored on a potable water system"
chlorine levels, PH, system pressure, and storage tank levels
Two uses of process water are"
housekeeping and washing down plant areas
Describe some hazards of process water"
may contain disease organisms, could cause corrosion or build up of scale"
Two uses of demineralized water"
make up water for the deaeratorwater storage tank. Boiler feedwater for chemical injection units
What is the purpsoe of a firewater system?"
to provide high pressure water to be used in emergency purposes, extinguishing fires or cooling equipment or storage tanks that are over heating
Three sources of firewater are"
Lakes, rivers, municipal
What is the purpose of the firewater jockey pump?"
to maintain a set system pressure until the pressure is again the appropriate level
Explain what an API separator does."
separates oil, sludge, and suspended materials from water
True or false, rainfall that falls within the battery limits of a process unit is storm water"
Natural gas is normally supplied to process sites by
Natural gas is a common name for the hydrocarbon
What is meant by the term step down?
Sweet natural gas differs from sour natural gas in that it has (more/less)
Fuel gas and natural gas samples are collected in __________ bags.
Fire tube boiler
heat is applied to the inside of the tube while water is circulated on the outside of the tubes and heated to steam
Water tube boiler
water is inside the tube and fire is on the outside
a boiler tube connecting the mud drum outlet to the steam drum
tube between the boiler top drum and the mud drum that is used to separate saturated water from the top drum
boiler vessel where the superheated water flashes to steam
settling chamber located below the steam drum in the boiler used to collect solids suspended in the steam
removes oxygen from water
a preheater for some furnace systems
a tank used to remove volatile components from a mixture by preheating the feed and operating the tank at a lower pressure than the feed
a system in which fans force air into a cooling tower or furnace
fans on a stack of a furnace used to pull combustion air into the furnace
device that removes soot from boiler tubes or the stack
prevents backflow from the main header back into the boiler
an instant increase in drum level when the firing rate undergoes a steep increase
the removal of water from a circulating system that prevents dissolved solids from concentrating and forming scale
an exchanger inside the boiler that heats steam above its boiling point
pure steam at a temp that corresponds to the boiling point temp of the water at that operating pressure.....Steam at the boiling temperature of the water at that operating pressure....
contaminates such as water or foam that are carried over with the steam into the steam header
a valve that allows pressure to be deliberately reduced to a controlled level
heat required to change liquid to a vapor
heat that can be measured with a thermometer
pure steam at a temp that corresponds to the boiling point temp of the water at that operating pressure
flexible sections of steam piping that allow for expansion and contraction of piping
a very thin film on the condensate piping to protect against oxygen and carbonic acid attack
steam exiting at a higher temp than its saturation temp
steam that has had some heat energy removed from it, returning it to the water phase
chemical added to the boiler feedwater in order to rid the boiler of small amounts of oxygen
a collection of pipes that collects condensate from the headers
The measure of force or pressure that causes current to flow in a circuit
The measure of the currents rate of flow
measure of resistance in a wire or conductor through which current flows
the rate of doing work, or power, expressed as volts times amperes
a situation that occurs during an emergency in which flow is reduced to low priority users to balance the available supply
Uninterruptible power system, supplies uninterrupted power to critical instrumentation, alarms, computers, and control panels
separate building that contains the electrical distribution equipment such as control panels, fuses, and breakers, designed to protect the system from an overload of power
ultra violet flash caused by a high voltage short that can permanently blind a person but also create temps as high as 35,000 degrees F
suit that protects electricians and technicians from potentially blinding or deadly arc flashes
protects equipment when the current gets large enough to nearly overload the circuit, the fuse burns out and interrupts the circuit
drop in voltage that start backup generators, burn up electric motors, and cause loss of instrumentation
helps maintain positive pressure at the flare tip to prevent air from backflowing into the stack
natural gas or nitrogen slightly above atmospheric pressure going through the length of the flare header to keep air out and sweep accumulated gases toward the flare
a wire or flat strap made of various weather resistant materials used to seal a valve open or closed
receive only materials discharged from the relief valves
receive vents from the process equipment as well as from the relief valve discharges
special furnaces that operate at high temps to destroy most hazardous or regulated compounds and convert them to acceptable compounds
uses a network of baffles which make it difficult for oxygen to penetrate the stack and keeps air from backflowing down the stack and combing with hydrocarbons to form an explosive mixture
device used at the flare tip to ensure smokeless burning capacity, to create draft, and cool the flame tip
if a mixture of flammable gases and air is ignited in the stack, the water seal is designed to quench the flame
contains water to extinguish a flame that backs into the flare system
routes relief gases entering through the stack inlet to the flare tip to be burned
steam added to the flame to cause complete and smokeless combustion
Volatile organic compounds, hydrocarbons that is fairly easy to vaporize and that usually has a lower boiling point than water
List the four voltage levels used by process industries, and explain the use of each level.
Volt- measure of force or pressure that causes current to flow in a current
Amp- measure of the currents rate of flow
Ohm- measure of resistance in a wire or conductor through which current flows
Watt- rate of doing work, or power, expressed as volts times amps
The most common voltage for electric motor drivers is
The circuit breakers for all large scale motors are located in the
Motor Control Center
List the four back up power systems available for a processing plant
-UPS Uninterruptible power system
-Steam turbine generators
A ___________ steps up or steps down electrical voltage?
What is the function of switch gear?
To switch from one electrical circuit to another
Explain how explosion proof equipment prevents explosions.
It prevents any explosion that may happen inside the enclosure from starting a fire or explosion to the outside area around the enclosure
Explain how intrinsically safe equipment prevents explosions
Keeps the electric current so low that it is hard to generate sparks
Explain the function of a relief gas system
Convert flammable or toxic substances into environmentally acceptable ones
A __________ is a collection of vessels, piping, and equipment designed to handle, recover, or dispose of gas released from process equipment.
Explain the purpose of a knockout drum
To remove any liquid vented into the header or liquid entrained in the gas
Explain why venting is necessary on some tanks and vessels
Helps prevent damage to equipment and vessels from over pressurization or other hazards
Explain the function of a flare system
Safely burn off large volumes of toxic or flammable material from a process under an emergency situation
Flare systems may be purged with ________ or __________
natural gas, nitrogen
Explain the purpose of keeping positive pressure within the relief header and sub headers
To prevent air leaking into the header creating a hazardous situation.
True or False, hot flares are designed to burn liquids
What is the function of the steam nozzles installed around the flare tip?
Reduces smoking by creating turbulence that pulls in extra air to mix with the relief gas
Flares have to monitors, one to __________ and the other to _____________
verify the unburned carbons, survey the pilot flame
Two checks the outside flare technician should make on the flare header are to
check the header pressure and flow rate of natural gas to the pilots
True or False
A process unit with a flare can replace the flare with a thermal oxidizer
Boilers are usually divided into two types _________ and __________
Why are soot blowers necessary?
Remove soot that builds up on the tubes
Two types of fans used on a boiler system are
Explain the purpose of boiler blowdown
To keep mud (sludge) from altering the boiler's operating efficiency
The function of the flash tank is to provide _____________
to the deaerator
Low pressure steam
What is meant by the term "swell"?
An instant increase in drum level when the firing rate undergoes a steep increase
The problem with too high a boiler water PH is that it causes
caustic embrittlement or cracking of the metal
The purpose of deaeration is to remove gases- specifically _________ and _________
Two ways to remove gases in boiler feedwater are by
mechanical and chemical
List three uses of steam in the process industry
Heat transfer in heat exchangers, a steam jet or exhauster, steam stripping
Define superheated steam and saturated steam.
Superheated steam is steam exiting at a higher temp than its saturation temp (dry steam)
Saturated steam is water vapor in balance with liquid water at or above the normal boiling point (wet steam)
Describe two ways that high pressure steam can be converted to medium pressure steam
a steam turbine and a letdown station
Explain the purpose of an expansion loop on a steam header.
To allow the steam piping to expand and contract
Why is condensate a valuable resource?
It is extremely pure, it is 180 degrees (less energy needed to heat it back to steam) and it has already been treated
Explain how corrosion coupons reveal the rate of corrosion in the condensate system.
they are pre weighted metal strips installed in a corrosion coupon bypass rack with continuous controlled water flow passing over it
Describe two advantages of extraction systems
can be performed at temps low enough to prevent the degradation of the desired material, also they are more economical
the separation of two materials by contacting them with a third substance that will dissolve one of the substances but not the other
feed solution minus the extracted solute
a chemical that will dissolve another chemical, in a liquid extraction, the third chemical that is added to extract the solute from the original solution
The most common extraction system is the __________ system
The simplest extraction unit is the ____________
single stage batch unit
Two types of flows in an extraction system are ___________ and ________________
Concurrent, counter current
In addition to using agitators, mechanical mixing can be induced by ___________ and ______________
Ultra sonic vibration and pneumatic pulsation
Explain the purpose of the extraction solvent.
List three desirable solvent properties.
-The solvent must be able to dissolve the solute
-Should not dissolve the raffinate and should be insoluble so that it will layer out
-Should be easily recoverable for recycling
True or false: A solvent should be easily recoverable for recycling.
Identify several factors that affect the extraction process.
Flooding, emulsion, interfaces
The purpose of a furnace is to ____________ to a process fluid
Each furnace is two pieces of equipment a __________ and a __________
shell and tube heat exchanger and a chemical reactor
Heat released by the combustion of fuel is measured in ____________
Heat energy released by combustion is called __________
Explain the function of furnace refractory.
heat resistant materials line the interior of high temp furnaces and reactors and processing units
Radiant heat accounts for __________ of the heat transfer in a furnace.
Describe two ways in which furnace tubes can be damaged.
sagging and flame impingement
the difference in pressure between the inside and outside of a furnace
Three chemical measurements of flue gas in the furnace stack are __________, _____________, and _____________
No2, O2, and Combustibles
Excessive ___________ can also blow the downcomer seal.
Three common tray types are the _____________, ____________, and ______________
Sieve, valve, bubble cap
Three common loose packing types are ___________, _________, and _____________
raschig rings, saddles, and pall rings
The ____________ from the vapor flow from the reboiler moves vapor up the column
latent heat energy
When a tower ___________ all the liquid on the trays falls to the tower bottoms at one time, and the bottom level rises rapidly
Two types of special distillations are ___________ and ___________
Extractive distillation and Azeotropic distillation
True or false: Each tray of a tower has a different temperature and vapor pressure than that of any other tray in the tower
True or false: After changing a tower process variable, the tower will reflect this change from top to bottom quickly
The most common source of water in a distillation tower is from _____________
Describe the purpose of refrigeration systems.
To produce cold, or to remove heat
The four basic components of a refrigeration system are the ____________, ____________, _____________, and _____________
Compressor, Condenser, Metering device, and Evaporator
Explain how a mechanical refrigeration system differs from an absorption system
Mechanical systems use compressors for refrigeration, absorption systems use a cooling water stream to cool the process stream
The four steps in the refrigeration cycle are ____________, ____________, _____________, and ______________
addition of energy, rejection of heat, expansion, and heat absorption
Three safety, health, and environmental concerns associated with refrigeration systems are ___________, ___________, and ____________.
high pressures, vibration, and rotating equipment
Two physical hazards to technicians working around compressors are __________ and ___________
high temps and high pressures
Identify pieces of equipment used in adsorption system
Adsorbent regeneration system
four commonly used adsorbents are:
Describe three uses of adsorption system in the process industry
1) Natural gas dehydration
2) Enhance oil recovery
3)liquid gas and sweeting
4) Prevent freezing and corrosion in pipelines
What is often used to remove water from a steam of gas or air
what are the most versatile adsorbent because the can be manufactured for a specific pore size
two types of adsorbent systems are:
Fixed and fluidized
What is a vessel in which a controlled reaction takes place?
______ are reactors that consist of a firebox that contains an arrangement of tubes that may or may not contain a catalyst
describe the difference between the batch and continuous reactor
BATCH- produces an finite amount of product from a finite amount
CONTINUOUS- fresh reactant is commonly added
the function of a ______ in a fire box reactor is to create more heat transfer surface area
Explain the advantage of a batch and continuous reactor
batch- high quality
continuous- higher volume
list five catalyst poisons
what's inside the reactor that breaks up the swirling motion caused by the agitator and can create turbulence that mixes he reactants more intimately
four common reactors used in the processing industry
(t/F) the batch reactor process produces a product with minimum variation
a substance that slows reactants or prevents undesirable reaction rates from taking place
most common factor used to measure the performance of a reaction process
_______ reactions will require the reactor jacket to supply heat using steam, hot oil, or hot water
(T/F) some centrifuge can separate miscible liquids of different densities
______ is a dried, damp, solid separated by centrifuge
(T/F) a decanter centrifuge produces drier cake than a batch filtration
a filtration centrifuge cake will be ____% or less moisture
Two types of filter mediums are:
fabric and metal cloth
the discharge liquid from a centrifuge is called _____
solution that contains more solute molecules
driving force in crystallization
crystallization is a _______ separation technique
addition of nonsolvent to decrease the solubility
factors effect crystal growth
define 'primary nucleation' and 'secondary nucleation'
crystallizers categorized into two types
batch & continuous
Dehydrates natural gas
Ion exchanger resin
Removes undesirable ions
Doesn't have components
Adsorbents consists of
Function to strip
Injection of steam
A solution that contains more solute molecules than it would under ordinary conditions is said to be ______________
A solvent solute mixture is commonly called the ____________
The driving force in crystallization is _____________. Which is normally controlled by temperature
Crystallization is essentially a ___________ separation technique
____________ is the addition of a nonsolvent to the solution that decreases the solubility of the solid
List three factors that affect crystal growth
Amount of mixing
Define primary nucleation and secondary nucelation
nucleation, is simply the formation of a
crystal where there are no other crystals present
nucleation is the main stage in crystallization, for this is what causes the
mass production of crystals.
Crystallizers can be categorized into two types ___________ crystallizers and __________ crystallizers
T/F Some centrifuges can separate miscible liquids of different densities.
____________ is dried/damp solid separated by centrifuge
T/F A decanter centrifuge produces drier cake than a batch filtration centrifuge
A filtration centrifuge cake will be of _________ % or less moisture
Two types of filter medium are _________ or _____________
The discharge liquid from a centrifuge is called __________
____________ is a vessel in which a controlled chemical reaction takes place
_____________ are reactors that consist of a firebox that contains an arrangement of tubes that may or may not contain a catalyst
Describe the different between batch and continuous reactor
Batch are used in pharmaceutical and specialty chemical industries.
Continuous are usually in the chemical industry
The function of ____________ in a fixed bed reactor is to create more heat transfer surface area
Explain the advantages of a batch and continuous reactors system.
Batch can produce a product with the least variation
Continuous can produce more product
List five catalyst poisons
___________ inside the reactor break up the swirling motion caused by the agitator and create turbulence that mixes the reactants more intimately
The four most common reactors used in the process industry are the ___________, ______________, _____________ and ____________
T/F The batch reaction process produces a product with minimum variation
____________ is a substance that slows reactions or prevents undesirable reactions from taking plac
_____________ is the most common factor used to measure the performance of a reaction process because it directly affects production rate and profitability
______________ reactions will require the reactor jacket to supply heat using steam hot oil or water
____________ is a chemical process in which one substance penetrates and is drawn into the bulk of another substance
Describe the function of a stripping system
Uses hot vapor to separate the lighter, or more volatile, components from the heavier, or less volatile, components in a liquids
Most absorbers consist of a __________
T/F Distillation occurs in an absorption column
The absorption fluid is commonly called _____________
Explain how rich oil differs from lean
Rich oil is full of absorbed compounds
Lean oil is empty of the compounds to be absorbed
The contact devices for mass transfer in an absorption column are the column ______________
_________________ are usually associated with an absorption column and function to strip the absorbed compounds from the absorption column's rich oil
________________ is the injection of steam or some gas under the surface of a liquid for the purpose of agitating the liquid
Identify five pieces of equipment used in adsorption systems
Vessels containing adsorbent
Support system for the bed
Adsorbent regeneration system
Four commonly used adsorbents are ___________, ____________, ____________, and _____________
Ion exchange resins
Describe three uses of adsorption systems in the process industry
Natural gas dehydration to prevent corrosion and freezing in pipelines and associated equipment
Enhanced oil recovery by reducing water content in carbon dioxide
Liquified petroleum gases (LPG), condensate and special hydrocarbon liquid dehydration to prevent freezing and corrosion in pipelines
A _____________ is often used to remove water from a stream of gas or air
______________ are the most versitile adsorbents because they can be manufactured for a specific pore size
Explain how adsorbent material is regenerated
The process stream is transferred out of the adsorbent bed
The bed is washed to remove adsorbed chemicals and debris
The adsorbent is regenerated, regeneration refreshes the absorbent material so that it can attract impurities again
The adsorbent bed is returned to service or, if there are parallel beds, placed in reserve
***a portion of the feed is heated in direct-fire heater then sent to the loaded bed. the hot gas passing through the loaded bed stripes the adsorbed impurities and regenerates the adsorbent
Two types of adsorbents systems are ____________ and ______________
Fluidized bed adsorbers
1 acetic 14 basic
acetic substance used to destroy microorganisms and lower PH
Plant that feeds bacteria, can also buildup or create suspended solids
microorganisms that contain diseases and are harmful to equipment
single cell organism, microscopic siZe
maintains set system pressure when there is a drop in the line pressure
espense water from hydrant and can rotate 360* with diffrent nozzles
solid materials suspended in water
contains carbon compounds
not deriving from life matter
stationary wire mesh that must be replaced
fixed screen that filters impurities
reversal of flow through a filter to clean it, too much pressure may remove media
allow massess of microorganisms to settle into activated sludge, seperates organisms from water
device used to enlarge particles so they may hit eachother and combine to fall
also called flocs, these are gelatenous spheres around the material grouped together
a media used to filter water, charcoal for oil
a basin that has slow water flow and allows flocs to combine and settle to botton and remove sludge
device used to dispense chemicals to water to form flocs
mg per liter
oil field water
water that contains high ammounts of brine
rock that allows fluid movement within it
combined water flows come together and are mixed
releases air into water so that oil will stick to the bubbles and rise
high scale producing ions
low scale producing ions
the suspention of solids
buildup of scale or substance in a pipe
chemicals used to destroy or interupt the life cycle of bacteria
add protective layer inside of pipe to neutralize cathode and anode spots
chemicals that prevent setteling
scale formation causes
fouling cause by bacteria
suspended material is seperated from water by gravity
growth based on ammount of phospherous in area
buildup of deposits in a pipe that cause blockage
Why do we control pH?
to keep water balanced. acetic water can corrode equipment and alkaline can promote scale
Where causes algae and bacteria and how do you control the growth of algae and bacteria?
excess phosphorus levels. use of biocides
What is scale
deposit formed on heat transfer surfaces by solids
what causes scale
dissolved solids entering water and depositing on heat exchangers
what reduces scale?
water softening, ion exchange, acidification
What affects dissolved solids?
What are PIV's
Post Indicator Valves
Where would you normally find the fire water header?
Scale formation is affected by?
PH, hydrogen ions
Types of chemicals used in a cooling tower
Coagulation________ the negative charges of suspended solids
Flocculation is a term used to describe the ______ of coagulated particles
Common coagulants include all of the following except
it takes ______ BTU to change one pound of water into steam
Heat stored in this form is often associated with
Latent heat of vaporization
A deaerator is a device used to
remove air from water
The typical pressure of the SHP steam is
It takes _____ BTU to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree F
What is the term given for the total energy due to both the pressure and temperature of a fluid such as steam
A measure of the ability of a substance to absorb heat
Flare systems are used to
safely burn excess hydrocarbons & remove excess hydrocarbons from a variety of plant process
aluminum and iron have______ positive charges that _______ the negative charges of the suspended solids
3 , counter
Chemical precipitation uses a chemical to react with dissolved minerals in feed water to form a _____ that drops harmlessly out of solution
Corrosion prevention is characterized by all of the following except
Adding oxygen and chemical inhibitors to feed water
Corrosion is a complex ______ reaction that can attack a large area or a small pinpoint area
The purpose of a conservation vent is to
Regulate pressure in a tank during operation
Why do boilers and cooling towers need to be blown down periodically
High PPM of suspended solids
High pH levels
Improve water quality
ALL THE ABOVE
The primary cause of boiler water carryover include all the following except
When minerals are dissolved in water they form
Ionic resins come in which two types
Anion and Cations
Blowdown is a term used to describe
Removal of water from boilers and cooling towers
Anions resins react with
Negatively charged particles
A cooling water system is typically designed to have a temperature range of
90°F Supply and 120°F return temperature
The recirculating cooling water concentration ratio on a cooling tower is typically designed for a minimum _____ cycles and is controlled by blowdown
The power received from electric supply companies is generally at voltage levels of
100 - 160 kV
Voltmeters are connected in _____ with wires in a electric circuit
As boiler feed water temperature increase, impurities precipitate and adhere to the hot metal surfaces of the boiler forming
Poor water quality will produce poor quality steam
List the 4 major parts in a refrigeration system
extract mixtures reaches a point at which it contains the maximum amount of solute
restricts flow; occurs in fixed-bed filters when solids or stick materials are deposited on the filter media
Reynolds number at or above 4000
occurs when a path is cut through a fixed bed or precoated filter that allows flow to pass through without proper filtration
a heat exchanger made of piping that surrounds most of the reactor. The piping is pressed against the exterior wall of the reactor and is insulated in place. Can either cool or heat the reactor depending on the situation
liquid components that will not mix and will separate into two phases if a density difference exists; each component retains its identity
Mass transfer devices
physical process that involves molecular and convective transports of atoms or molecules in physical systems. Trays or packing
Granular Activated Carbon
contains fixed bed of packing or catalyst, may have a single large bed or series of parallel beds (better heat transfer, reduction of channeling, reduction of hydraulic force)
an increase in ____ ______ increases the boiling point of the mixture. The temperature will be increased as the pressure increases
Effects of changing temperature in an extraction system
Change in temperature changes the densities in liquids and the change may not be at the same rate
Is distillation a chemical reaction?
No, it's a physical reaction
Temperature changes in a distillation column
Increasing tower temperature while everything else stays the same will (1) make the top and bottom products heavier and (2) cause an increase in overhead product and a decrease in bottom product
Pressure changes in a distillation column
-Increasing tower pressure while everything else stays the same makes both the top and bottom products lighter
-Decreasing tower pressure while everything else stays the same will (1) make the top and bottom products lighter and (2) cause a decrease in overhead product and increase in bottom product
Temperature, pressure, and density are higher at the bottom of the column
How many bonding sites does carbon have
Reaction rates double
for each 10 degrees Celsius increase in reaction temperature
Differences between a fixed bed and fluid bed reactor
A fixed bed reactor contains a fixed bed of packing or catalyst while in a Fluid bed reactor the catalyst is in motion
Types of poisions
Chlorides, fluorides, vanadium, copper, chromium, lead, and other heavy metals
Types of catalysts
-liquids - hydrochloric, sulfuric, or hydrofluoric acid
-other catalysts may be solids of various sizes, from large, clay, rocklike materials to small, pelletlike or even dustlike (fluidized catalyst)
-a common gaseous catalyst is boron trifluoride
Ideal reactor yield
What is the purpose of adsorbers?
Used to separate a component of process stream by causing it to attach to a solid
What is the purpose of absorbers?
Work in conjunction with stripping system to separate materials using mass transfer separations, removes impurities and lighter materials from stream
What equipment is used in extraction?
-Solvent recovery system
Define Adsorption and describe an example of an adsorption system
A chemical process in which a thin layer of a given substance sticks to specific sites on the surface of a porous solid. Natural gas dehydration is an example, this prevents corrosion and freezing in pipeline
mixture of 2 heterogeneous chemicals that will not dissolve in each other and will not layer out
Reynolds number at or below 2000
coke or poison
calculate raw material needed to make final product, calculate the amounts involved in reactions, and expressed as a balanced chemical equation
the mole ratio between 2 factors in a chemical reaction
crystalline metal aluminosilicates that have a three dimensional interconnecting network of silica and alumina tetrahedral that operate like a sieve with tiny holes trapping small particles and letting large particles by. Most versatile adsorbent
remove moisture for a stream of gas or air
microporus aluminous silicate minerals used as adsorbent material
like a sieve with tiny holes trapping small particles and letting larger particles by, can be regenerated, adsorbent and can be manufactured with specific pore size
a mixture that acts as a pure substance and boils at one temperature. Requires at least 2 towers
release of heat.... Generates heat
tube between the boiler top drum and the mud drum that is used to separate saturated water from the top drum; or a tube that runs from one tower tray down to another
plate or dam that helps distribute liquid evenly over trays
small bowls turned upside down on cylinders with slits
tube where the steam travels up in the boiler into the steam drum
keeps liquid from flowing up through the trays
device used to inject steam or some other gas under the surface of a liquid for the purpose of agitating the liquid
series of piping to distribute a fluid to plant users
the separation of two materials by contacting them with a third substance that will dissolve one of the substances but not the other
also called the "feed"; a uniform mixture of molecular sized particles (compounds) the particles in solution are not chemically bonded and can be separated by purely physical changes...... A uniform mixture of particles of molecular size.
a chemical that will dissolve another chemical
the feed solution minus the extracted solute
Typical reaction varaibles
Pressure, Temperature, Time, Agitation, Heat Transfer Limited
Effects of Temperature on the reaction
Rate of reaction doubles for each 10 degrees celsius increase in temperature; affects the speed at which reactions occur in liquids and solids, as well as gases
Effects of Pressure on the reaction
the higher the pressure, the higher the reaction rate
Effects of Time on the reaction
Residence time - the longer the reaction time, the more products formed
Effects of Agitation on the reaction
good contact between reagents, maintain uniform conditions
Concentration of reactants
Higher the concentration, the faster the reaction
Heat transfer Limited
speed up reaction create max product and min by product...... Participates in a reaction but is not changed by the reaction. Stimulates reaction or forces reaction to go to desired products
slows reaction or prevents undesirable reaction rates from taking place; kills a reaction or reduces the yield of desirable products. a substance that prevents or hinders the reaction of two or more chemicals...... a substance that prevents or hinders the reaction of two or more chemicals
Different types of reactors
-catalytic bed reactors
-fixed bed (two types)
Catalytic bed reactors
Two types of fixed bed
- catalyst packed inside bed and remains stationary
-fluidized bed catalyst in motion
has agitator, designed for heating, cooling or both long reaction times, handle liquid-liquid solid reaction
most common type is called the loop reactor, the other type is a reactor shell with vertical tubes full of catalyst
Pressure differential occurs between liquids and vapors
A device that is widely used for the removal of oxygen and other dissolved gases from the feedwater to steam-generating boilers that atomizes the feed water and scrubs with steam.
Contains condensation and chemically treats it
Used to purge lines
short across components in a system where working ultraviolet flash can blind but also creates temperatures of 35,000 F
Condensate removal from header
Dangers of reducing pressure too quickly
generation of electricity by burning waste gases
switches from one circuit to another
quality of being hot;high temperature
process of a substance in a liquid state changing to a gaseous state due to an increase in temperature and/or pressure
Blowdown in steam drum
removal of water from a circulation system that prevents solids from concentrating and forming scale.
Water tubes lining the walls, floor, and ceiling. Used to protect brick and absorb most radiant heat.
internal wall with insulation firebrick;also has metal exterior wall
corrugated plates in front of the exit from the steam drum;removes en trained water;dry separated steam
Types of draft
Induced draft-naturally pumped;thermosyphon
Monitors Flame at Flare
2 types (camera, heat)
High noise levels causes
let down station, steam during upset conditions because of reducing steam pressure too quickly causing very high velocities.
process of burning something
create turbulence for better burning. (introduces steam into flare which brings in more air)
located at the base of the stack; contains water to extinguish a flame that backs into the flare system
Vapor Recovery Unit. Recovers relief gases that can be used as fuel gases.
knocks out any liquid in relief gas header. Removes condensate from steam
tube type or basket type heat exchanger in the flue gas stream after it leaves the boiler but before the stack
sealing a vent in the open or locked position
phase change from liquid to vapor
Increase in temperature. (can be felt)
measure of the currents rate of flow
Measure of force or pressure that causes current to flow in a circuit
Flare Header Sources
Hazardous gases;material from relief/safety valves
lay down thin film on piping
operate at 4,160+volts;some produce a fraction of a horsepower;others 100,000 hp
purpose of iron core of electromagnet
increases flux density and creates a more powerful magnet
ignition source that provides combustion to light pilot flames
tip of gas burner in a furnace or boiler used to atomize fuel.
device used to control flue gas flow to optimize fuel combustion. Also called air foil commonly found in the stack. Typically set to allow pressures from .05-0.15 inches of water.
water on outside of tubes/shell side, fire/heat inside of the tubes.
(Most common) fire on the outside/shell side, water is on inside of the tubes
water coming in contact with a closed valve, starting or stopping liquid flow suddenly.
causes thinning of the pipe wall which can eventually lead to holes in piping. Superheated steam can be used for prevention.
flow of air or other gases through a boiler
determines how much fuel to use to regulate temperature and pressure safely when boiler load increases, more fuel is needed.
burns the gases that have been routed from the inlet stack.....function is to mix air with the relief gas to promote complete and smokeless burning
thermal and abrasion protection
stray current signal interference
stray current diversion - safety
increase magnitude of signal to maintain integrity during transmission
to remove noise in the signal
"Applying a known input span to an instrument and adjusting the device so that its output corresponds to the known values"
Systematically examining, localizing, and diagnosing equipment malfunctions or anomalies.
Transmitter mounted below process
PV=0 does not equal a sensor reading of 0
Offset the instrument display to account for the higher reading at PV=0
3 position - hand/off/auto
verifies physical state - direct contact
no direct contact - presence activates the circuit (may be magnetic, other sensor)
senses vibration (at a certain rate)
Process Variable switch
actuates when a process variable limit is exceeded
Pressure, temperature, etc.
announcing" - panel with flashing lights, audible alarms
silence audible alarms
First out (first shutdown)
shows the order that
alarms came on - for troubleshooting
put the alarm panel back in 'ready' position after a problem has been corrected
alarm switch has tripped; alarm circuit is on/off; something is out of range
notification - trigger annunciator panel
will actuate a shutdown circuit
will actuate an over‐ride or bypass circuit
will actuate an automatic process startup when conditions are met
instruments that have one or more microprocessors or smart chips included in their electronic circuitry so they may be programmed and have diagnostic capability
adjusting a measuring instrument to the proper output value for a zero measurement signal.
a device that boosts maintains or controls the flow of a signal so it can be properly received.
a mechanical or electrical device used to operate or energize mechanical or electrical circuits for alarm, shutdown, or control purposes using a predetermined operating point or set point
a signal that fluctuates dramatically that is most likely the result of a loose sensor connection
Suspended Solids - cause sludge
Dissolved Solids - cause scale, sludge Dissolved Gases - cause corrosion
Biological Treatment Biocide treatment
Primary Water Treatment
Remove suspended solids
May use chemicals to help separation
Remove dissolved solids and gases
Screens - big pieces
Clarifiers - small solids, may include coagulation Filters - final polishing
Secondary Water Treatment
Remove dissolved solids and gases
Softeners, demineralizers - dissolved solids removed by ion exchange or reaction (soda‐lime process)
Aerators - Strip dissolved gas (H2S) by replacing with air
Deaerators - steam heat to force dissolved gases (oxygen, CO2) from water
Microorganism removal: 'Biocides' (chlorine) Biological Treatment - waste water treatment
Use microorganisms to digest organic waste
settling tanks built with mechanical means for continuous removal of solids being deposited by sedimentation.
removing dirt and other particles suspended in water. Alum and other chemicals are added to water to form tiny sticky particles called "floc" which attract the dirt particles. The combined weight of the dirt and the alum (floc) become heavy enough to sink to the bottom during sedimentation.
the removal of air molecules (usually meaning oxygen) from another gas or liquid.
a chemical substance or microorganism which can deter, render harmless, or exert a controlling effect on any harmful organism by chemical or biological means to control algae and fungi growth within a cooling tower
the removal of water from a circulating system that prevents dissolved solids from concentrating and forming scale.
a deposit of an inorganic, crystalline nature
in water treatment, solids produced through precipitation
damage to metal equipment and piping caused by oxygen and other gases entrained in water or exposed to air
a water treatment process that uses resins or zeolites to remove undesirable ions and replaces them with less harmful ions
As it cools at all, steam will condense - that's why you can see steam coming off a boiling teakettle - some of it is condensing
Steam heated above the boiling temperature of the water at that operating pressure
Superheated steam can cool off a lot before it reaches the boiling/condensing temperature of the water - so it won't condense - can't see any vapor
the amount of energy required to evaporate a liquid (phase change)..... heat required to change liquid to vapor
cannot be sensed or measured
a property of physics and refers to a method of passive heat exchange based on natural convection, which circulates a substance (liquid, or gas such as air) without the necessity of a mechanical pump
Mixing two substances or direct contact with one substance (exhaust gases)
hot coffee and cold cream; convection section in furnace
Convection oven - blows hot air around food
Contact through a solid - no mixing; indirect contact
Shell/tube heat exchangers
Pan on a stove top - pan conducts heat from burner to food
Electromagnetic waves - no contact
Sunshine, heat from woodstove, burner flames in furnace
Pan under a broiler - radiant heat from burner/flame onto food
a reaction of a process which releases heat
quantities of reactants mixed in exactly the correct amounts so that all are used up at the same time
a process unit for air pollution control in many chemical plants that decomposes hazardous gases at a high temperature and releases them into the atmosphere.
Adsorption is the removal of an impurity from a fluid stream, by attaching the impurity to the surface of a solid (the adsorbent).
ignition spontaneously in air at a temperature of 130 degrees F (54.4 degrees C) or below
Natural Gas Dehydration
Enhanced Oil Recovery
Sulfur removal liquid/gas
LPG condensate removal
a collection of different equipment and processes that are interrelated
plant air receiver
uses for plant nitrogen
• Purging lines and equipment
• Blanketing a pressure vessel
• Backup to instrument air
• Cooling medium
natural gas uses
• Fuel for fired systems
• Blanket gas
• Fuel for flare pilot lights
• Purge gas
lowering the pressure to a controllable 3-5 psig
Fuel gas is the mixture of off gas and natural gas
waste hydrocarbon gas vented from process vessels
what samples of Fuel gas and natural gas samples are collected in
The four conditions that affect the evaporation of a storage tank's contents
Liquid temperature, vapor space above the liquid, vapor space ventilation, and available liquid surface area are the four conditions that affect the evaporation of a storage tanks contents.
safety instruments associated with a tank
Relief valve- set at a static pressure to release pressure in the tank.
High pressure alarm- an alarm set to go off at a set tank pressure.
High temperature alarm- an alarm set to sound at a set temperature.
important pieces of fire/safety equipment in a tank farm because it shows wind direction which is detrimental in emergency situations like spills or fires to be upwind from the smoke/fumes.
Blanketing gases maintain an artificial atmosphere above the liquid in order to prevent the entrance of air that causes corrosion, air that may react with the liquid, prevent the entrance of moisture, as well as to dilute and lower the oxygen content of the vapor space to the extent that the vapor to air ratio is raised well above the upper flammable limit.
tank blanketing gases
nitrogen and natural gas
How much pressure/vacuum can an atmospheric tank handle without damage or rupture?
5 oz/in squared above or below atmospheric pressure.
Conventional kettle blending
components are manually weighed or metered into one mixing vessel mixed with agitation.
Conventional pipeline blending (tank blending)
uses stop meters to introduce bulk liquid components into a pipeline. The bulk liquid is then piped to a finished product storage tank. Meters are operated manually usually, components are mixed in the finished product tank. Heating from tank coils or external heat exchangers. Agitation methods can be mixers, pump circulation, or pulsair devices.
uses computer controlled valves and meters to introduce blend components into a line or header in a proportional manner. Usually there is a valve /meter combination to meter each blend component separately
used to switch from one electrical circuit to another.
a separation process that physically separates components by their BOILING POINTS
Feed or Charge
Process streams in to the tower
Liquid streams pulled from the tower, multiple locations
vapor stream off the top of the tower (also used to describe the condensed vapor - 'overhead liquid')
liquid stream off the bottom of the tower
condensed overhead product returned to the top of the tower to:
Increase purity of overhead product and
Draw, Product Draw - Liquid streams pulled from the tower, multiple locations
reflux from somewhere mid‐ tower, liquid pulled out and heated/cooled, then returned to tower to: Adjust tower temperature and
Adjust composition of streams in tower
- Liquid that falls through the trays not the downcomer
- (not enough vapor flow up through the trays)
Separation of two materials by contacting them with a third material that will dissolve one of the substances but not the other. based on solubility.
How well one substance will dissolve in another (salt in water, alcohol in water, oil in water) - sometimes called miscibility
Stream containing a component we need to separate
Stream that will selectively dissolve the desired component, not dissolve the Feed
(Extract): Solvent OUT of the extractor, now contains the desired component
Feed stream OUT of the extractor, now without the component
(Solute or Extract): The component we want to separate - move it from Feed to Rich Solvent, then separate it from Rich Solvent
Properties of a Good Solvent:
-Must be able to dissolve solute
-Does not dissolve or contaminate raffinate
-Density of solvent should allow gravity layering
-Must be able to be separated from solute
Types of Extraction
Material removed from solid by contacting with liquid
materials on surface of a solid removed by dissolving it in a liquid and flushing it away
liquid mixture is separated by allowing them to layer out by weight or density
simplest and most common
shell filled with objects packed in
one stream flows up the other flows down
similar to distillation trays
one stream flows across the trays while the others flows through the trays hole, bubble or baffle
removes selected components from a gas stream by contacting it with a gas or liquid
rich gas into bottom lean oil into the top
used with absorbtion columns
steam injected into the bottom of stripper and oil into the middle
an impurity is removed from a process stream by adhering it to the surface of a solid
small porous solids containing submicroscopic wholes
removal of water
adsorption used for drying
removes chemicals and solids from process gasses
atoms arranged in a definite symmetrical pattern
removal of wax from lubricating oils
raw materials charged to still
series of stills
temperatures are hotter
vapor-liquids contact on trays allows heavier molecules to drop out and smaller moelcules to vaporize and rise up
can be sensed or measured.... heat that is related to changes in temperature of a gas or object with no change in phase
simplest type of tray
metal plate with holes, tray perforated with holes. Vapors move up through the holes.
have simple movable plates
depends on the process flow
located above the feed tray, the top hlf of a distillation column
located below the feed tray, the bottom half of a column
funnel liquids from upper trays to lower
located on plates and allow hot vapors to flow between trays, contains steam and water
T or F Fahrenheit operates by using 32°F as freezing and 212°F as boiling. Celsius uses 0°C for freezing and 100°C for boiling.
T or F Thermoelectric temperature measuring devices come in six types.
All of these
The term pressure usually is applied to a fluid and is measured in:
a fluid at rest in a closed container, a pressure change in one part is transmitted without loss to every portion of the fluid and to the container
Pascal's Law states:
at constant temperature, the pressure of a gas varies inversely with its volume. The higher the gas pressure, the closer the gas molecules are and the smaller the volume they occupy
Boyle's Law states:
all are correct
For pressure gauges, which of the following statements is true?
Which of the following is not a type of manometer?
Which of the following is not type of Bourdon tube?
T or F Flow meters, such as orifice plate meters and venturi meters, use differential temperature to measure flow rate.
T or F Weir and flume flow and level measuring devices are used to calculate flows in open channels.
T or F Level measurements use fixed reference points, typically vessel taps, on which to base level measurements.
T or F A permissive is a special type of interlock that controls a set of conditions that must be satisfied before a piece of equipment can be started.
Which of the following is not a kind of flow meter?
Which of the following is not a direct measurement instrument?
T or F Indirect instrumentation uses pressure changes that respond proportionately to level changes.
T or F PFDs provide detailed information in regards to piping specifications and instrumentation.
T or F P&ID legends provide information regarding piping, instruments, equipment symbols and revision numbers.
Composition of chemicals in a given flow would be found on what kind of diagram?
DCS distributive control system
a computer based system that controls and monitors process variables
the ratio of the output signal from the controller to the error signal
a special kind of interlock that controls a set of conditions that must be satisfied before a piece of equipment can be started
PSIA absolute pressure
the pressure above a perfect vacuum (zero pressure)
allows a control loop to utilize all five elements and work to match the set point
sight glass gauge
a level measuring device consisting of a transparent tube and gauge attached to a vessel that allows an operator to see the corresponding liquid level
a device used to convert one form of energy onto another; typically electric to pneumatic
a chamber installed in a vessel or piping to hold thermocouples and RTDs
a device that prevents damage to equipment and personnel by stopping or preventing the start of certain equipment if a preset condition has been met
an instrument used to compare a process variable with a set point and initiate a change to return the process to a set point if a variance exists
bellows pressure element
a corrugated metal tube that contracts and expands in response to pressure changes
a device used to sense a process variable such as pressure, level, temperature, composition or flow and produce a signal that is sent to a controller, recorder or indicator
a hooked shaped, thin walled tube that expands and contracts in response to pressure changes and is attached to a mechanical linkage that moves a pointer
differential pressure cell
measures the difference in pressure between two points
a temperature measuring device composed of dissimilar metals that are connected at one end; heat applied to the connected ends causes the generation of voltage that corresponds to the temperature change, which is indicated on a temperature scale
pressure below zero gauge; often expressed in inches of mercury
PSIG gauge pressure
the pressure above atmospheric pressure; zero is equivalent to approximately 14.7 psi at sea level
desired value of a process variable.
Which of the following in NOT part of a basic control loop?
If an electronic transmitter output range is 4 ma = 0% and 20 ma = 100%, what is the ma reading when the output is at 50% output?
If a pneumatic transmitter output is 3 psig = 0% and 15 psig = 100%, what is the psig reading when the output is at 50%?
When a controller receives a signal from a transmitter, that signal is compared to which of the following?
T or F If an "air to open" valve loses instrument air it will fail in the open position.
If a pneumatic controller output is 3 psig = 0% and 15 psig = 100%, what position will an "air to close" valve be in if the air pressure coming to it from a controller is 3 psig?
T or F Solenoid valves are often used for throttling service.
Which of the following processes does not use furnaces?
convection and radiant
Which of the following are the primary means of heat transfer in furnaces?
natural gas or methane
Many furnaces use ______ or ______ as fuel for burners among other types of fuel.
T or F Heat, fuel and oxygen engaged in a chain reaction denotes the fire triangle.
firebrick or insulating brick
Refractory brick is classified as
T or F Furnace pressures usually run above atmospheric pressure in the range of 4 to 6 in H2O.
T or F Radiant heat transfer accounts for 60% to 70% total heat energy pickup, convection accounts for 30% to 40%
What is used to separate the various sections of the firebox?
Which of the following is not a type of furnace draft?
T or F In direct fired furnaces, combustion gases fill furnace tubes.
helical or serpentine
In cabin furnaces, radiant tubes may be configured in a ______ or ______ layout.
As hot combustion gases leave the firebox, a series of tubes called the ______ is (are) encountered.
T or F The arch is a preheating section for compressed air near the stack.
T or F The cylindrical furnace enhances draft from the lower radiant section
shutting down the furnace and injecting superheated steam
Coke buildup can be cleaned by
T or F Furnace feed control valves should fail in the closed position
T or F Insulating brick has a higher temperature range than firebrick
T or F Castable refers to expendable parts that can be cast away.
T or F The radiant section of a cabin furnace is designed to allow direct contact with the flame.
T or F Secondary air refers to air that enters through the peepholes
T or F Flameout is usually the result of too much air through the registers
the charge is preheated before entering the radiant section
Referring to p. 245, figure 10.10 in the text book, which of the following is not accurate.
oxygen is analyzed inside the burners to ensure proper combustion
Referring to p. 245, figure 10.11 in the textbook, which of the following is not accurate?
T or F Furnaces are routinely shut down and re-started as the need arises
Which of the following is not a type of burner?
T or F Feed pump failure causes immediate overheating.
T or F On flameout, keep the furnace running as long as possible.
reactants are ignited in the correct proportion/all the fuel is converted into water and carbon dioxide
Complete combustion occurs when
controlling excess oxygen (ensuring proper air concentration)
What is the single most important variable affecting efficiency of furnace operation?
T or F Feed composition relates to the process charge composition
classified as periodic or sustained
fuel air mixture ratio incorrect
uses energy passing out the stack
negative pressure at different elevations in the stack
quick burst of nitrogen
Which of the following is not a heat transfer method found in boilers?
above the tubes
In a fire tube boiler, the water level is maintained
water tube boiler
The most common type of commercial boiler is the
Boiler water circulation operates under the principle of
T or F Pressure in a steam generator is maintained by adding makeup water and continuously applying heat.
Which of the following is not one of the 6 types of tubes found in a water tube boiler?
natural gas, atomized fuel oil
Most boilers use which types of fuel to heat a boiler?
Which section is used to increase boiler efficiency by preheating the water as it enters the system?
T or F The fire box section forces hot gasses into the economizer section.
As long as steam and water are in contact with each other, the steam is referred to as
What devices are used to remove condensate from steam?
Which of the following does not belong in the list?
T or F Pressure and temperature are directly correlated in the super-heated loop.
T or F In a boiler start up, lighting the burners is an acceptable way of checking for flammables.
T or F Temperatures are typically lower in the economizer section.
T or F The lower mud drum has mechanical separators to assist in the separation of water from steam.
The up position
In an inverted bucket steam trap, the valve is in the closed position when the bucket is in
contains the water steam interface
special shut off valves
energy from changing state
energy that can be measured with devices
steam generating drum
on level control
on pressure control
on flow control
T or F The water seal in the flare stack base ensures a positive pressure on the flare header
T or F In a hot relief flare system, the knock-out drum is made of stainless steel.
T or F The flare tip pilot burners should always be burning.
T or F The purpose of the knock-out drum is to prevent backward propagating flame from entering equipment connected to the main header.
T or F Steam protects the burner tips from the flame and provides for smokeless operation.
fire tube/water tube
What are two kinds of boilers?
T or F Steam distribution systems generally divide steam into 4 pressures.
50-60 PSIG/can be supplied from the exhaust
LP steam is:
T or F Raw water and fire water come from the same supply.
T or F Fire water pumps are instrumented to start automatically on pressure declines below 110 PSIG.
T or F Fire water pipes are installed above ground for ease of maintenance and repair in the event of fire damage and leaks.
T or F Loop isolation refers to being able to supply fire water around damaged piping and leaks.
T or F Deluge systems are part of the BFW system.
separator drums (knock out drums)
Plant utility air has water removed via:
Instrument air (IA) dryness is measured by:
none of the above
Nitrogen is generally delivered to the plant via pipeline at which of the following pressures? 900-1200 PSIG, 120-150 PSIG, 200-250 PSIG, or none of the above.
T or F Natural gas is generally used as primary fuel for furnaces and boilers.
T or F There are three types of protection afforded to motors that operate in the plant.
remove air and dirt from the system, release condensate, permit flow in only one direction
Steam traps do which of the following?
In plant waste streams, that which separates the oil phase from the water phase is referred to as a (an):
release the pressure under which it is stored
When propylene is compressed and is in a liquid state at room temperature, what must be done to it to make it boil?
T or F After refrigerant is compressed, it passes through a condenser and absorbs heat energy from the surrounding atmosphere.
T or F In the evaporator of an AC system, boiling refrigerant gives off heat.
When refrigerant passes from a high pressure to a low pressure, its temperature:
T or F Flame front generators are used to burn waste gas vapors.
establish a positive operating pressure inside the flare header, prevent air from entering the flare header system
The water seal height in a flare stack is used to:
T or F A cold flare system would be used for the release of vapors such as propylene.
T or F Steam injected into the released vapors from the flare help to minimize the amount of visible smoke during a release.
All of the above
Plant utility systems generally include which of the following? steam generation and boiler operations, compressed air systems including plant air and instrument air, natural gas and nitrogen, distribution water treatment
Which of the following is used for drinking water?
50 PSIG saturated steam operates at a temperature of:
T or F All raw water pumps in a system are instrumented to start automatically when utility water pressure declines below 110 PSIG.
T or F First backup pump starts at 110 PSIG, second diesel-driven pump starts at 100 PSIG and the third diesel-driven pump starts when the system pressure drops below 80 PSIG.
all deluge systems on storage vessels are supplied by a separate potable water supply
With respect to plant fire water systems, which of the following statements is not accurate:
only one pump is required in the system as small interruptions in BFW are not critical to plant operations
With respect to boiler feed water treatment, which of the following statements not accurate:
at lower temperatures, the dissolving nature of water is enhanced - amounts of dissolved solids may be increased
With respect to physical properties of water, which of the following statements is not accurate:
all of the above
Regarding coagulation, which of the following IS accurate:
coagulation neutralizes negative charges of suspended solids, thereby allowing them to clump together and settle out
common coagulants include aluminum and iron salts
aluminum and iron have three positive charges that counter negative charges of suspended solids
all the above
all of the above
Regarding demineralization, which of the following IS accurate: ion exchange resins are used to remove electrically charged particles (ions) from water when minerals are dissolved in water they form two types of ions; anion resins which react with negatively charged ions such as sulfate (S04 -2) and cation resins which react with positively charged ions such as calcium ions (Ca+2) and magnesium ions (Mg+2) demineralization is a process that passes raw water through both anion and cation exchange resins effluent from this process is essentially pure water all the above
add dissolved oxygen by heating water with steam
What is not the purpose of deaeration?
T or F Plant air (utility air) and instrument air (IA) differ in dew point.
a,b and c
Regarding instrument air (IA), which of the following statements IS (ARE) accurate: IA pressure is protected against low pressure (as a result of excessive plant air usage) by an upstream pressure controller in utility air system a control valve will close off plant air if the instrument air header pressure falls below 95 psig it is necessary to maintain the instrument air system pressure at its normal controlled pressure of 105 psig, because some control valve actuators begin to malfunction when the pressure drops below 60 psig
a, b and c
b and c only
T or F At some plants, the plant instrument air system is protected against pressure failure by a tie-in to the nitrogen (N2) system.
T or F Utility air should never be used for unplugging lines or sewers or for removing liquid hydrocarbons from trucks or vessels because of hazard of creating combustible mixtures.
T or F Hearing protection is optional when working near a compressor that has a silencer.
T or F Utility hoses used for steam, water and nitrogen are interchangeable for economic purposes.
a,b and c
Which of the following IS (ARE) accurate: N2 is purchased from a supply company and is delivered by a high-pressure pipeline ranging in pressures from 300 to 600 psig the pressure is reduced at each operating unit to a working pressure of 120 to 150 psig N2 is used primarily as an inert gas for blanketing vessels and lines or for conveying combustible materials and sometimes as a backup for instrument air
a, b and c
The UPS system keeps all electrical equipment operating during a power failure.
T or F Natural rainwater that falls within the curbed areas is allowed to leave the plant unchecked.
all of the above
During reactor operation, process technicians are responsible for which of the following?
establishing correct flow or feed rates to the reactor
ensuring correct temperature, pressures and level
monitoring and controlling reaction rates (time)
ensuring specified mixing or agitation is occurring (pumps or mechanical agitators)
all the above
T or F Reactors are vessels in which a controlled chemical reaction takes place.
What units take two small molecules of iso-butane and olefin (propylene, butylenes or pentylenes) and combines them into one large molecule of high-octane liquid called alkylate?
Alkylate is a superior ____________ product that is used in blending unleaded gasoline.
fluid catalytic cracking
During ____________, operation gas oil enters the reactor and is mixed with a superheated powdered catalyst. The term cracking is applied to the process because during vaporization the molecules literally split and are sent to a fractionation tower for further processing.
all of the above
Crude oil is a mixture of:
clay and water
all the above
filled with a fixed bed of catalyst
The reactor bed in a hydrocracker is:
In which of the following are raw materials carefully weighed and added to a reactor.
continuous reactor operation
Which of the following adds raw materials incrementally to the reactor where finished products flow out while raw materials flow in and are exposed to catalysts, pressure, liquids, or heat?
fluid catalytic cracking
In what process does the chemical reaction between the catalyst and light gas oil produce a solid carbon deposit?
fluidized bed reactor
What process suspends solids in a reactor by counter-current flow of gas?
In what type reactor does the fixed medium remain in place as raw materials pass over it?
What sweetens products by removing sulfur?
Which of the following is a reactor filled with a catalyst designed to break large molecules into smaller ones through chemical reactions that remove hydrogen atoms?
Which of the following uses a reactor to make one large molecule out of two small molecules?
fluid catalytic cracking
What is a process that uses a reactor to split large gas oil molecules into smaller more useful ones?
What is a process that uses a reactor to scrape the bottom of the barrel and squeeze light products out of reside?
What uses a multi-stage reactor system to boost yields of gasoline from crude oil?
Which of the following reactors is surrounded by a heated jacket?
All the following are examples of safety devices used on reactor systems EXCEPT
Which of the following is NOT a factor that affects a reaction process?
T or F Endothermic reactions generate heat during reaction.
T or F In a balanced reaction, the sum of the reactants equals the sum of the products produced
Autoclave refers to what type of reactor?
When the solvent and feed both enter the reactor from the same side the flow pattern is called ___________.
Between each tray is a ____________, a device for liquid to flow from one tray to another.
Adsorbers are used principally to control the emission of _____________.
As liquid flows down a tower from tray to tray its ___________ increases.
density, temperature , pressure
____________ are the most versatile adsorbent
Vapors at the top of the tower exit through a ___________ that removes entrained liquid.
A ______________ is a mixture that acts like a pure substance and boils at one temperature.
Stripping columns have counter current flow.
A decrease in pressure inside a column causes __________.
boiling points to decrease
Once granular activated carbon in a bed has reached it break point it must be __________.
replaced or regenerated
____________ is a method of calculating the amounts of materials that must put into the reactor to produce the desired amounts of products.
Two process variables directly related to the speed at which reactions occur are ____________ and ________.
Define endothermic and exothermic reactions
exothermic gives off heat, endothermic need heat for reaction
Reactor catalysts can be ______________________.
liquid, solid, gas
Select the reaction variables which may be found on a product recipe sheet.
temperature, pressure, time, agitation, concentration, catalyst, inhibitor
the ideal reactor yield is ______.
A ___________ reactor produces a finite amount of product from a finite amount of reactants.
Select differences between a fixed bed and fluid bed reactor from the list below.
fixed bed contains fixed beds of inert packing, fixed bed contains fixed beds of catalyst, in a fluidize bed the catalyst flows like fluid
a mass transfer device can be a ________.
A ____________ is a heat exchanger made of piping that surrounds the reactor.
____________ is caused when an open path through the adsorber bed allows the feed to avoid intimate contact with the adsorbent.
The _________ is the actual material that separates the solid from the liquid stream.
Select the catalyst poisons from the list below.
chlorides, fluorides, vanadium
nearly all commercial distillation is multi component distillation
A change in a filter's differential pressure can be due to all of the following except
increase in level
Changes in ____________ will cause a change in the density of extraction fluids.
As vapor flows up a tower from tray to tray its ___________ increases.
pressure,density,temp (none of these)
A __________ is a substance that slows down reactions or prevents undesirable reactions from taking place.
On the side of a tray receiving liquid from a downcomer is a ____________.
GAC stands for guard activated column.
A strainer is just a screen placed across a line to remove rust and debris.
______________ are the simplest and most commonly used extraction vessels.
Select the most common types of reactors.
furnace,stirred tank, tubular,fixed bed
______________ occurs when the extract mixture has reached a point at which it contains the maximum amount of solute.
Reactors are rounded vessels so that there would not be dead spaces that reduce mixing and yield.
The ________filter is probably the most common filter device.
In general, reaction rates double for every _____°C increase in temperature.
a mixture if two heterogeneous chemical that don't dissolve in each other
buildup of product inside tubes causing an insulation to form and reduce heat transfer. Fouling restricts flow.
smooth flow, slower rate of travel
rough flow, better for heat exchange, higher velocities.
fully saturated filter, plugged filter, stops flow
Water softener. Use salts to soften water, removes iron etc. Zeolites remove undesirable ions and replace them with less harmful ions
A change in a filter's differential pressure can be due to all of the following
feed viscosity, increase in flow rate, loaded filter (not increase in level)
---------The following are all characteristics of methane except:
(liquid at atmospheric conditions)
odorless,flammable,lighter than air, colorless
---------When metal parts of the motor and switch are connected to a pump or surrounding piping, they are grounded and any electricity will flow to the ground.
---------an electric motor turns because
a. An electric current flowing through a coil wire produces a magnetic field.
b. Unlike poles attract
c. Like poles of the magnet repel.
-----------Cooling towers operate on the principal of heat removal by ___________.
----------the sand in fracking fluid is there for:
hold open the gaps in the fractured rock
--------What material is between the bore hole and the casing?
All of the following except ______ are dehydration methods used in Natural Gas processing
------Natural gas expands _________times its normal volume when it changes from liquid phase to a vapor phase.
-------What is the refrigerant used to pre-cool natural gas before it is liquefied?
---------The heat required to change hot water to steam is:
heat of vaporization
Breaking large, complex hydrocarbon molecules into smaller molecules is called: _____________
-------Water with pH of 11 is:
------- A _________ is a chemical that reacts with suspended materials and forms a precipitate.
----------Microorganisms can be controlled in water by injecting chemicals called _______.
--------Describe two ways the instrument air system differs from the plant air system.
instrument air is at 105 psig and plant air is at 125 psig , Instrument air is dryer
_______________ is affected by water temperature, pH and dissolved solids
____________ is defined as the destruction of metal by electrochemical or chemical reaction
In one direction and then in the opposite direction
------In a boiler, what part of the boiler will the water flow to immediately after leaving the lower drum?
The tubes in the combustion area
88888888____________ is steam that has had heat energy removed from it and has returned to the liquid phase.
----One advantage of the waterwall is that the tubes protect the ________________.
--------When boiler load increases, the boiler needs
-------A decrease in pressure inside a column causes __________.
boiling points to decrease
----------A mass transfer device can be a ____________.
---------A __________ is a substance that slows down reactions or prevents undesirable reactions from taking place.
An ______________ is a mixture that acts like a pure substance and boils at one temperature.
---------As liquid flows down a tower from tray to tray its ___________ increases.
all the above
8888888______________ occurs when the extract mixture has reached a point at which it contains the maximum amount of solute.
------Glycol is a liquid desiccant used to remove water vapor from natural gas
--------a magnetic field consists of a series of lines called?
magnetic lines of flux
8888888____________ are the most versatile adsorbent
-------Adsorbers are used principally to control the emission of _____________.
---------------Define endothermic and exothermic reactions
exothermic gives off heat, endothermic need heat for reaction
----------On the side of a tray receiving liquid from a downcomer is a ____________.
--------Plant and instrument air come from the same source.
--------Once granular activated carbon in a bed has reached it break point it must be __________.
replaced or regenerated
-------As vapor flows up a tower from tray to tray its ___________ increases.
pressure,density,temp (none of these)
-----DB&B stands for double block and bleed.
8888888____________ is caused when an open path through the adsorber bed allows the feed to avoid intimate contact with the adsorbent.
-------Natural gas with a high volume of sulfur is called _____________.
---------DURING POWER FAILURE CRITICAL INSTRUMENTATION, ALARMS, COMPUTERS AND CONTROL PANELS ARE SUPPLIED WITH POWER THROUGH THE
--------The fire water system has subterranean valves called ____________.
post indicator valves
-------WHAT ARE THE TWO DESIGN STYLES OF STEAM TRAPS?
--------Once opened and flowing, a well can produce for how many years?
-------Well fluid separation depends on
--The compositon of the fluids
Lockout and tagout for motor repair occurs in the _______
motor control center
_________ is contained in SCBA emergency
The temperature of the pilots on the flare are monitored
induction and most commonly used
Like magnetic poles
they will repel each other
Why is mercury removed from natural gas streams?
because it is toxic, and corrosive to aluminum, and catalyst deactivation
In general, the water level in the steam drum is measured at
Which is not a chemical property of nitrogen
-nonflammable, colorless, odorless, tasteless, and non-toxic.
(except inert gas)
The types of drilling fluids include all the following except (water-based, oil-based, pneumatic)
except hydrualic- (water-based, oil-based, pneumatic)
in two directions
are the simplest and most commonly used extraction vessels
the _____ is the heat sink in which all the cooling towers heat is dumped
The ________ is the heat sink in which all the cooling towers heat is dumped
Acute symptoms of overexposure to nitrogen may include
Drowsiness, blue color in lips and skin, death, unconsciousness,
nitrogen warning properties make it ____ to detect
______ adjustment prevents damage to piping
to release gas from an oil solution you should
______ are solid materials such as clay and sand that are not dissolved in water
an increase in column pressure causes
boiling points to increase
Hydrocarbon is "saturated" means it
has only single bonds
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