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Bio test study guide for test 2
Terms in this set (73)
What is the difference between a monomer and a polymer?
Polymers are long molecules consisting of many similar or identical buliding blocks linked by covalent bonds.
Monomers are small molecules. the repeating units that serve as the building blocks of a polymer
What is a dehydration synthesis reaction? What is the end product?
A chemical reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other with the removal of a water molecule. Results in the synthesizing of a polymer.
What is a hydrolysis reaction? What is the end product?
A chemical reaction that breaks bonds between two molecules by the addition of water. (The opposite of hydration). Results in the breaking down of a polymer.
What are the 4 biological macromolecules?
Carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids.
What is the monomer and polymer of a carbohydrate?
The monomer is a monosaccharide.
The polymer is a polysaccharide.
Can you give an example of a monosaccharide, disaccharide or polysaccharide?
Glucose is a monosaccharide.
Maltose (or malt sugar) and sucrose is a disaccharide and lactose (sugar in milk).
Starch and glycogen and Cellulose and Chitin are polysaccharides.
What type of bond joins two monosaccharides together?
What are the primary components of a fat molecule?
Glycerol and fatty acids
What type of bond joins the fatty acid tail and the glycerol head of a fat molecule?
What are the three types of lipids?
Fats, phospholipids, and steroids
What property makes lipids unique from the other macromolecules?
They mix poorly with water. (Does not include true polymers)
What is the difference between a saturated and an unsaturated fatty acid? Which one is solid at room temperature? Which one is liquid at room temperature?
Saturated has all carbons in the hydrocarbon tail are connected to single bonds (maximizing the number of hydrogen atoms that are attached to the carbon skeleton).
Unsaturated has one or more double bonds between carbons in the hydrocarbon tail. ( reduces the number of hydrogen atoms attached to the carbon skeleton).
Saturated fat is solid at room temperature. Unsaturated fat is a liquid at room temperature.
What type of lipid makes up the plasma membrane of cells?
What does a steroid look like?
Has a carbon skeleton consisting of four fused rings.
What is the monomer and polymer of a protein?
Polypeptide is a polymer. Amino acid is a monomer.
What holds two monomers of a protein together?
What are some of the functions of proteins?
Selective acceleration of chemical reactions; protection against disease; storage of amino acids; transport of substances; coordination of an organism's activities; response of cell to chemical stimuli; movement; support
What are the 4 levels of protein structure? What is unique about each different level?
Primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary.
The primary structure of a protein is its unique sequence of amino acids.
Secondary structure, found in most proteins, consists of coils and folds in the polypeptide chain.
Tertiary structure is determined by interactions among various side chains (R groups).
Quaternary structure results when a protein consists of multiple polypeptide chains.
READ IN BOOK!!!
What happens to proteins when they are denatured?
Process in which a protein loses its native shape due to the disruption of weak chemical bonds and interactions, thereby becoming biologically inactive.
What is an amino acid? What makes one amino acid different from another?
An amino acid is an organic molecule with an amino group and a carboxyl group. Amino acids differ in their properties due to differing side chains, called R groups
What is the monomer and polymer of a nucleic acid?
Polynucleotides are polymers. Nucleotides are monomers.
What are the 3 components of a nucleotide?
A five-carbon sugar (a pentose); a nitrogen-containing (nitrogenous) base; and one or more phosphate groups.
What are the nitrogenous bases that make up part of a nucleotide?
pyrimidines and purines
What is the difference between DNA and RNA?
DNA is a double helix whereas RNA exist as single strands (more variable in shape). DNA is ATCG, RNA is AUCG.
What 4 features are found in both eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells?
Semifluid substance called cytosol
Chromosomes (carry genes)
Ribosomes (make proteins)
What is the difference between a prokaryotic and a eukaryotic cell?
Besides Eukaryotic cells being larger in size, most of the DNA in an organelle called the nucleus. Whereas in a prokaryotic cell the DNA is concentrated in a region that is not membrane-enclosed called the nucleotide.
Why is it important to have many small cells instead of one large cell?
A smaller object has a greater ratio of surface area to volume. (Metabolic requirements set upper limits on the size of cells)
What are the functions of the organelles in animal and plant cells?
Nuclear Envelope- double membrane enclosing the nucleus.
Nucleolus- involved in the production of ribosomes
Chromatin- material consisting of DNA and proteins
Endoplasmic Reticulum- active in membrane synthesis and other synthetic and metabolic processes
Peroxisome- organelle with various specialized metabolic functions; produces hydrogen peroxide as a by-product, the converts it to water
Mitochondrion- organelle where cellular respiration occurs and most ATP is generated.
Golgi Apparatus- organelle active in synthesis, modification, sorting, and secretion of cell products
Ribosomes (small brown dots)- complexes that make proteins
Plasma membrane- membrane enclosing the cell
What organelles are found only in plant cells but not in animal cells?
Which organelle holds the DNA?
Which structure of the cell is responsible for synthesizing proteins?
Which part of the endomembrane system manufactures lipids or carbohydrates?
Which part of the endomembrane system manufactures proteins?
What makes the rough ER rough?
The ribosomes are on the outer surface of the membrane
What organelle receives, modifies, and ships cellular components?
What organelle takes up much of the volume of the plant cell?
What is the function of the mitochondria?
the sites of cellular respiration, a metabolic process that uses oxygen to generate ATP (from sugars, fats, and other fuels)
Where does photosynthesis take place in plant cells?
What does the lysosome do?
a membranous sac of hydrolytic enzymes that can digest macromolecules. Lysosomal enzymes can hydrolyze proteins, fats, polysaccharides, and nucleic acids.
What is the theory of endosymbiosis?
An early ancestor of eukaryotic cells engulfed a nonphotosynthetic prokaryotic cell, which formed an endosymbiont relationship with its host. The host cell and endosymbiont merged into a single organism, a eukaryotic cell with a mitochondrion. At least one of these cells may have taken up a photosynthetic prokaryote, becoming the ancestor of cells that contain chloroplasts
What similarities do mitochondria, chloroplast and bacterial cells share?
They contain ribosomes as well as multiple circular DNA molecules associated with their inner membranes.
What are the 3 main components of the cytoskeleton?
Microtubules are the thickest of the three components of the cytoskeleton
Microfilaments, also called actin filaments, are the thinnest components
Intermediate filaments are fibers with diameters in a middle range
What are the main components of the Extracellular Matrix (ECM)?
Glycoproteins (proteins with covalently bonded carbohydrates) and other carbohydrate-containing molecules secreted by the cells
How do adjoining plant cells pass water and nutrients through their cell walls?
the cell walls are perforated (pierced) with plasmodesmata, which are channels that connect cells
What type of junction in animal cells acts like super glue?
tight junctions (membranes of neighboring cells are pressed together, preventing leakage of extracellular fluid)
What type of junction in animal cells acts like Velcro?
Desmosomes (anchoring junctions) fasten cells together into strong sheets)
What type of junction in animal cells allows adjacent cells to communicate?
Gap junctions (communicating junctions) provide cytoplasmic channels between adjacent cells)
Which animal cell junction is similar to plasmodesmata found in plant cell walls?
What is the fluid mosaic model?
states that a membrane is a fluid structure with a "mosaic" of various proteins embedded in it
What are amphipathic molecules?
molecules containing hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions
What components are found in the plasma membrane?
Membranes have been chemically analyzed and found to be made of proteins and lipids ?? READ IN BOOK TO MAKE SURE!
Where do the membrane glycolipids and glycoproteins come from?
Membrane carbohydrates may be covalently bonded to lipids or more commonly to proteins
What is diffusion?
the tendency for molecules to spread out evenly into the available space
In what direction do molecules move across the membrane in diffusion?
From high to low.
What kind (charge/polarity) of molecules can diffuse across the membrane?
How is osmosis different then diffusion?
Osmosis: Water diffuses across a membrane from the region of lower solute concentration to the region of higher solute concentration until the solute concentration is equal on both sides. Diffusion is high to low.
What specialized channels allow water to move across the membrane?
Channel proteins and Aquaporins ??
What is the difference between isotonic, hypertonic and hypotonic, in terms of the solute concentrations outside the cell?
Isotonic solution: Solute concentration is the same as that inside the cell; no net water movement across the plasma membrane.
Hypertonic solution: Solute concentration is greater than that inside the cell; cell loses water.
Hypotonic solution: Solute concentration is less than that inside the cell; cell gains water.
What are the ideal osmotic concentrations for plant and animal cells?
Animal: Isotonic (a solution that, when surrounding a cell, causes no net movement of water into ot out of the cell)
Plant: Hypotonic (solution that, when surrounding a cell, will cause the cell to take up water)
What is passive transport?
transport proteins speed the passive movement of molecules across the plasma membrane
What is facilitated diffusion?
the passage of molecules or ions down their
electrochemical gradient across a biological membrane with the assistance of specific transmembrane transport proteins, requiring no energy expenditure.
What are the 2 types of proteins that allow molecules to move from one side of the membrane to the other side?
Channel proteins and carrier proteins
What is the difference between passive transport and active transport?
Passive transport does not require energy while Active transport energy does. In the case of active transport, the molecules move against the concentration gradient and in passive transport the molecules diffuse down their concentration gradient.
In what direction do molecules move during active transport (in terms of their concentration gradient)?
against their concentration
What type of energy is used to drive active transport?
What is so important about the sodium potassium pump found in animals?
works this way to exchange N+ and K+ across animal animal cell membranes, creating a higher concentration of potassium ions and lower concentration of sodium ions within the cell. ???
What is membrane potential?
the difference in electrical charge (voltage) across a cell's plasma membrane to the differential distribution of ions. Membrane potential affects the activity of excitable cells and the transmembrane movement of all charged substances.
What is the electrochemical gradient?
The diffusion gradient of an ion, which is affected by both the concentration difference of an ion across the membrane (a chemical force) and the ion's tendency to move relative to the membrane potential (an electrical force).
What is important about the proton pump found in plants?
It actively transports protons (hydrogen ions, H+) out of the cell. It is important for ATP synthesis during cellular respiration.
What type of cotransport can be found in plant cells? What is cotransport?
Sucrose H+ Contransport.
Occurs when active transport of a solute indirectly drives transport of other solutes
What are the 2 types of bulk transport means into and out of cells?
Exocytosis (transport vesicles migrate to the membrane, fuse with it, and release their contents) and Endocytosis (the cell takes in macromolecules by forming vesicles from the plasma membrane)
What is phagocytosis?
a cell engulfs a particle in a vacuole
What is pinocytosis?
molecules are taken up when extracellular fluid is "gulped" into tiny vesicles
what are the malignant causes of lymphocytosis?
what are the principle parts of the cell?
What are the clinical signs of pulmonary adenomatosis?
what is important in naming tumors of differentiated cells?
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