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56 terms

Carbohydrates, Proteins, and Lipids Test

biology quiz on 10/18/12
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Element
Substances made up entirely of one kind of atom that cannot be broken down into any other simpler substance.
Atom
The smallest unit of of an element that still has the properties of that element.
Chemical Bonds
The forces that hold two or more atoms together in molecules.
What are the types of chemical bonds and their definitions?
Covalent bonds: atoms that share electrons
Ionic bonds: the force of attraction between 2 ions
Hydrgen bonds: a "weak" bond between Hydrogen and another atom
What is released when a bond is broken?
Energy-engery is present in bonds to help hold them together
Compound
A group of atoms joined together. Formed when elements share or transfer electrons
Molecule
The smallest unit of a compound
Organic Compounds
All organisms are made of organic compounds. All organic compounds MUST contain the elements carbon and hydrogen. They may also include other elements.
What are the four basic groups of organic compounds?
Carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, nucleic acids
What do living things use organic compounds for?
Enerygy, growth, cellular repair
What does your body use carbohydrates for?
Immediate source of enegry
What 3 elements make up carbohydrates?
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen
What are the 2 types of carbohydrates?
Sugars and starches (starch is more complex)
Monosaccharides
Simple sugars-literally means "one sweet"
ex. glucose galactose, fructose
Disaccharides
When two monosaccharides can be chemically joined together to form a larger molecules-literally means "double sweet"
Dehydration Synthesis
When an organism combines at least 2 smaller molecules together to form a more complex molecules and water molecules are produced
What does your body use proteins for?
Body repair, replacement, and growth of body tissues and make hormones, antibodies, and enzymes
Lipids
Fats, oils, or waxes
Polysaccharides
When simple sugars, or monosaccharides, combine together by dehydration synthesis to form long chains of molecules (comlex sugars)
Which compound is removed from simple sugars during dehydration synthesis?
Water
Why must food be broken down into smaller, molecular sized particles?
So that is can be absorbed into our blood stream and body cells
What 2 monosarccharides join together by dehydration synthesis to form a sucrose molecule?
Glucose and fructose
Hydrolysis
The process in which a larger molecule is split and water is split.
What 4 elements are always in proteins?
Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen
What are the "building blocks" of proteins?
Amino Acids
Dipeptide Bond
When you chemically link 2 amino acids together
Peptide Bond
When 2 amino acids are chemically joined together
Polypeptide
A chain of less than 100 amino acids linked together
How many common amino acids used to make proteins are there?
20
Polymer
A long chain of repeating units, not necessarily identical.
Is it chemically correct to say that a protein is a polymer? Explain why.
Yes because proteins are repeating amino acids.
What elements are in Lipids?
Carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
Which type of lipid is normally a liquid at room temperature?
Oils
Which type of lipid is the hardest at room temperature?
Fats
What are 2 chemical sub-units in lipids?
Fatty acids and glycerol
What contains more chemical bonds per molecule, a molecule of fat or a molecule of a monosaccharide?
A fat molecule because lipids are bigger molecules that have longer chains of fatty acids and they have more chemical bonds
When one glycerol and three fatty acids join together, what forms? During this dehyrdation synthesis, how many water molecules are formed?
Lipids are formed
3 water molecules are formed
What is the name of the organic molecules that can be chemically bonded together to form a polysaccharide?
Simple sugars (monosaccharides)
What is the name of the 2 organic molecules that are chemically bonded together to form a molecule lipid?
Glycerol and fatty acids
Which 2 organic compunds contain the carboxyl group of atoms?
Proteins and lipids
What inorganic molecule is always produced during dehydration synthesis?
Water
How many protons, neutrons and electrons are on a carbon atom?
6 protons, 6 neutrons, and 6 electrons
What are the 3 parts that make up lipids?
1. Glycerol
2. a long chain of carbon atoms bonded to hydrogen atoms
3. Carboxyl Group
Hydroxyl Group
a group consisted of oxygen and hydrogen (OH)
Fatty Acid
A carboxyl group plus the long hydrocarbon chain
Hydrocarbon
Substance composed of only hydrogen and carbon
Saturated Fats
All of the carbon to carbon bonds are single bonds. Usually sold at room temperature
Unsaturated Fats
One or more carbon to carbon bonds are double or triple bonds. Usually are liquid oils at room temperature
Hydrogentaion
Adds (H) and fat becomes "saturated"
Nucleic Acids
Contains carbon, hydrgen, oxygen as well as nitrogen and phosphorus
Carboxyl Group
Group of an Amino Acid that consists of COOH
Amino Group
Group of an Amino Acid that consists of NHH
R or Variable Group
Group of an Amino Acid that is different for each Amino Acid
In what ways can you tell the difference bwtween an organic compound and an inorganic compound?
Organic compunds always have Carbon and Hydrogen
What four elements are most often found in organic compounds?
Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen (CHON)
How many covalent bonds can a carbon atom form?
4