28 terms

AP Psychology Cognition Thinking and Language

AP Psychology Cognition Thinking and Language Vocabulary
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Cognition
all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating.
Concept
a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
Prototype
a mental image or best example of a category. Matching new items to the prototype provides a quick and easy method for including items in a category (as when comparing feathered creatures to a prototypical bird, such as a robin).
Algorithm
A methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. Contrasts with the usually speedier- but also more error prone use of heuristics.
Heuristic
a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms
Insight
a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions
Confirmation Bias
a tendency to search for information that confirms one's preconceptions.
Fixation
the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving
Mental Set
A tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, especially a way that has been successful in the past but may or may not be helpful in solving a new problem
Functional Fixedness
the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving
Representativeness Heuristic
judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead one to ignore other relevant information
Availability Heuristic
estimating the likelihood of events based on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind, we presume such events are common
Overconfidence
the tendency to be more confident than correct--to overestimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgments
Framing
the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments
Belief Bias
the tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invalid conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid
Belief Perseverance
clinging to one's initial conceptions after the basis on which they were formed has been discredited
Artificial Intelligence
the science of designing and programming computer systems to do intelligent things and to simulate human thought processes suchs as reasoning and understanding language
Computer Neural Networks
Computer circuits that mimic the brain's interconnected neural cells, performing tasks such as learning to recognize visual patterns and smells
Language
our spoken, written, or signed words and the ways we combine them to communicate meaning
Phoneme
in a spoken language, the smallest distinctive sound unit
Morpheme
in a language, the smallest unit that carries meaning; may be a word or a part of a word (such as a prefix)
Grammar
in a language, a system of rules that enables us to communicate with and understand others
Semantics
the set of rules by which we derive meaning from morphemes, words, and sentences in a given language; also, the study of meaning
Syntax
the rules for combining words into grammatically sensible sentences in a given language
Babbling Stage
beginning at about 4 months, the stage of speech development in which the infant spontaneously utters various sounds at first unrelated to the household language
One-word Stage
the stage in speech development, from about age 1 to 2, during which a child speaks mostly in single words.
Two-word Stage
beginning about age 2, the stage in speech development during which a child speaks mostly two-word statements.
Telegraphic Speech
early speech stage in which a child speaks like a telegram--'go car'--using mostly nouns and verbs and omitting 'auxiliary' words