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benefits of planning
intensified effort, persistence, direction, creation of task strategies, encourages to think of better ways to perform
pitfalls of planning
can impede change and prevent or slow needed adaptation, can create false sense of certainty, detachment to planners.
set goals, develop commitment, develop effective action plans, track progress toward goal achievement, maintain flexibility
determination to achieve a goal, buy in, get employees to buy in by setting goals themselves
increases goal commitment
going public, having individuals or work unit tell others about their goals, obtain top management's support
options based planning
keep options open by making small, simultaneous investments in many options or plans
cushion resources, such as extra time, people, money, or production capacity, that can be used to address and adapt to unanticipated changes
learning based planning
assumes that action plans need to be continuously tested, changed and improved
clear how the company will serve customers and position itself against competitors in the next two to five years
which flows from the vision, is more specific foal that unifies company wide efforts, stretches and challenges the organization, and posses a finish line and time frame
specify how a company will use resources, budgets, and people to accomplish specific goals within its mission
management by objectives 2
participatively select goals that are challenging, attainable, and consistent with the company's overall goals
management by objectives 3
jointly develop tactical plans that lead to the accomplishment of tactical goals and objectives
day to day plans for producing or delivering the organizations products and services
save managers time because once the plans are created, they can be used repeatedly to handle frequent recurring events
indicate the general course of action that company managers should take in response to a particular event or situation
more specific than policies because they indicate the series of steps that should be taken in response to a particular event
rules and regulations
even more specific than procedures because they specify what myst happen or not happen
quantitative planning because it forces managers to decide how to allocate available money to best accomplish company goals
rational decision making
systematic process of defining problems, evaluating alternatives, and choosing optimal solutions
process in which each decision criterion is compared to a standard or ranked on its own merits
process in which decision criterion is compared directly with every other criterion
decisions making process restricted by real world by limited resources, incomplete and imperfect information, and mangers, limited decision making capabilities
occurs in highly cohesive groups when group members feel intense pressure to agree with each other so that the group can approve a proposed solution
a type conflict
affective conflict, refers to the emotional reactions that can occur when disagreements become personal rather than professional, results in hostility, anger, resentment, and distrust
creates c type conflict by forcing decision makers to state the assumptions of a proposed solution and then generate a solution that is the opposite of the proposed solution
nominal group technique
members write down as many problem definitions and alternative solutions as possible
members of a panel of experts respond to questions and to each other until reaching agreement on an issue
begins with discussion between two group members who share their thoughts, ideas, and recommendations before jointly making a tentative decisions
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