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Chapter 15

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Communication
the process of transmitting information from one person or place to another
Perception
the process by which individuals attend to, organize, interpret, and retain information from their environment
Perceptual Filters
the personality, psychology, or experience-based differences that influence people to ignore or pay attention to particular stimuli
Selective Perception
the tendency to notice and accept objects and information consistent with our values, beliefs, and expectations while ignoring or screening out or not accepting inconsistent information
Closure
the tendency to fill in gaps of missing information by assuming that we don't know what is consistent with what we already know
Attribution Theory
a theory that states that we all have a basic need to understand and explain the causes of other people's behavior
Defensive Bias
the tendency for people to perceive themselves as personally and situationally similar to someone who is having difficulty or trouble
Fundamental Attribution Error
the tendency to ignore external causes of behavior and to attribute other people's actions to internal causes
Self-Serving Bias
the tendency to overestimate our value by attributing successes to ourselves (internal causes) and attributing failure to other or the environment (external causes)
Encoding
putting a message into a written, verbal, or symbolic form that can be recognize and understood by the receiver
Decoding
the process by which the receiver translates the written, verbal, or symbolic form of a message into an understood message
Feedback to sender
in the communication process, a return message to the sender that indicates the receiver's understanding of the message
Noise
anything that interferes with the transmission of the intended message
Jargon
vocabulary particular to a profession or group
Formal Communication Channel
the system of official channels that carry organizationally approved messages and information
Downward Communication
communication that flows from higher to lower levels in an organization
Upward Communication
communication that flows from lower to higher levels in an organization
Horizontal Communication
communication that flows among managers and workers who are at the same organizational level
Informal Communication Channel (grapevine)
the transmission of messages from employee to employee outside of formal communication channels
Coaching
communicating with someone for the direct purpose of improving the person's on-the-job performance or behavior
Counceling
communicating with someone about non-job related issues that may be affecting or interfering with the person's performance
Nonverbal Communication
any communication that doesn't involve words
Kinesics
movements of the body and face
Paralanguages
the pitch, rate, tone, volume, and speaking patterns (i.e. use of silences, pauses, or hesitations) of one's voice
Communication Medium
the method used to deliver an oral or written message
Hearing
the act or process of perceiving sounds
Listening
making a conscious effort to hear
Active Listening
assuming half the responsibility for successful communication by actively giving the speaker nonjudgmental feedback that shows you've accurately heard what he or she said
Empathetic Listening
understanding the speaker's perspective and personal frame of reference and giving feedback that conveys that understanding to the speaker
Destructive Feedback
feedback that disapproves without any intention of being helpful and almost always causes a negative or defensive reaction in the recipient
Online Discussion Forums
the in-house equivalent of Internet newsgroups. By using Web-or software-based discussion tools that are available across the company, employees can easily ask questions and share knowledge with each other
Televised/Videotaped Speeches and Meetings
speeches and meetings originally made to a smaller audience that are either simultaneously broadcast to other locations in the company or videotaped for subsequent distribution and viewing
Organizational Silence
when employees withhold information about organizational problems or issues
Company Hotlines
phone numbers that anyone in the company can call anonymously to leave information for upper management
Survey Feedback
information that is collected by surveys from organizational members and then complied, disseminated, and used to develop action plans for improvement
Blog
a personal Web site that provides personal opinions or recommendations, news summaries, and reader comments