Terms in this set (14)
in 1954 under the command of the National Liberation Front Algeria started the war against France, used Guerilla warfare, the French sent troops in 1958, hundreds of thousands of Algerians died, thousands of french soldiers died, but Algeria got their independence in 1962
A hit-and-run technique used in fighting a war; fighting by small bands of warriors using tactics such as sudden ambushes
Decolonization of Algeria
France ruled Algeria. Voting structure made French and Arabs equal. French gave rights to Arab Muslims who fought in WWI. During WWII, Free France led by de Gaulle dominates Algeria. Violent fights between Muslims and French. Algerian nationalism born. Algerian nationalists found National Liberation Front. CIVIL WAR. Fourth French republic refuses to compromise. Fear of civil war in France over Algeria. de Gaulle becomes president of Fifth Republic. He slowly retreats from Algeria. Algerian independence! National Liberation Front take over Algeria under President Den Bella. Many Muslims and people with European backgrounds (pied noirs) leave. Started unwelcome Muslim population in France.
Pied Noirs, meaning "Black Feet" in French, is a term referring to people of French descent who lived in Algeria until the end of French rule in North Africa between 1956 and 1962. More specifically, it refers to the European-descendent citizens who returned to mainland France as soon as Algeria gained its independence. It began as a derogatory term for Algerians, but grew to be applied to people of French descent in Algeria.
French general and statesman who became very popular during World War II as the leader of the Free French forces in exile (1890-1970)
Government established in France from 1946-1958, The French government set up after World War II; Had a weak president, strong legislature, and too many parties
National Liberation Front -- underground movement by Algerian Muslims to, and gained, independence from France.
An armed wing of the nationalist Front de Libération National (FLN) during the Algerian War. After the independence of Algeria from France in 1962, the ALN was converted into the regular armed forces of the republic
Arab Algerians who fought for the French during the Algerian war. The Harkis who settled in France remain ostracized by North African immigrants, and are not integrated into French society either.
Battle of Philippeville
August 20, 1955. FLN stormed Philippeville and killed both French and French-supporting Muslims. French retaliated. Symbol of impossibility of communication and certain war.
Battle of Algiers
The Battle of Algiers was a campaign of urban guerrilla warfare carried out by the FLN against the French Algerian authorities from late 1956 to late 1957. The conflict began as a series of terrorist attacks by the FLN against the French forces and civilians in Algiers, reprisals followed and the violence escalated leading the French Governor-General to deploy the French Army in Algiers to suppress the FLN. Civilian authorities left all prerogatives to General Jacques Massu who, operating outside legal frameworks between January and September 1957, successfully eliminated the FLN from Algiers. The use of torture, forced disappearances and illegal executions by the French later caused controversy in France.
Barrier between Tunisia and Algeria built by the French Army
Challe was a French Air Force general whose greatest military success was in the realm of counter-insurgency operations during the Algerian War. His offensive, begun in March 1959, succeeded in substantially weakening the ALN. Through the use of speed and concentration of force, Challe kept the ALN insurgents in constant retreat and disorder. His innovative tactics would be studied and emulated by others - notably Syrian government forces in the Syrian Civil War seeking to keep insurgency at bay and off balance. The Challe Plan was only partially completed before he was reassigned to France.
ended the 1954-62 Algerian War with a formal ceasefire proclaimed for 19 March, and formalized the idea of cooperative exchange between the two countries. Basically consisted of cease-fire arrangements, prisoner releases, the recognition of full sovereignty and right to self-determination of Algeria, in addition to guarantees of protection, non-discrimination and property rights for all Algerian citizens