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97 terms

Biology Test 3/Mastering Biology

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6 CO2 + 6 H2O → C6H12O6 + 6 O2
Which of these equations best summarizes photosynthesis?
Stroma
Where does the Calvin cycle occur?
water ... NADPH
The light reactions of photosynthesis use _____ and produce _____.
Photophosphorylation
Which term describes ATP production resulting from the capture of light energy by chlorophyll?
False
True or false? The chemiosmotic hypothesis states that the synthesis of ATP generates a proton gradient that leads to electron flow through an electron transport chain.
Proton gradient
According to the chemiosmotic hypothesis, what provides the energy that directly drives ATP synthesis?
Protons
Which of the following particles can pass through the ATP synthase channel?
False
True or false? The region of ATP synthase that catalyzes the production of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate spans the chloroplast membrane.
ATP will not be produced because there is no ADP and inorganic phosphate in the solution.
Chloroplast membrane vesicles are equilibrated in a simple solution of pH 5. The solution is then adjusted to pH 8. Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from these experimental conditions?
Photosynthesis
Which process produces oxygen?
The light-dependent reactions
Which set of reactions uses H2O and produces O2?
The light-independent reactions turn CO2, a gas, into usable carbon in the form of sugars.
What is the importance of the light-independent reactions in terms of carbon flow in the biosphere?
True
True or false? The light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis use water and produce oxygen.
NADPH
Which of the following molecules is the primary product of photosystem I?
They convert carbon dioxide to sugar.
What is the biological significance of the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis?
The light-dependent reactions produce ATP and NADPH, which are then used by the light-independent reactions.
Which of the following statements best describes the relationship between the light-dependent and light-independent reactions of photosynthesis?
Regneration of RuBP
Which of the following reactions ensures that the Calvin cycle can make a continuous supply of glucose?
G3P
Select the correct molecule that is the main product of the Calvin cycle.
CO2 is fixed or incorporated into organic molecules.
What is the basic role of CO2 in photosynthesis?
The basic function of the light reactions of photosynthesis is the conversion of solar energy to chemical energy.
Select the most accurate statement describing the basic function of the light reactions of photosynthesis.
DNA is double-stranded, whereas RNA is single-stranded
Which of these is a difference between a DNA and an RNA molecule?
sugar with two, and not three, oxygen atoms
You can tell that this is an image of a DNA nucleotide and not an RNA nucleotide because you see a _____.
Thymine
Which of these nitrogenous bases is found in DNA but not in RNA?
1' ... 5'
In a nucleotide, the nitrogenous base is attached to the sugar's _____ carbon and the phosphate group is attached to the sugar's _____ carbon.
5' to 3'
Nucleic acids are assembled in the _____ direction.
thymine ... cytosine
In a DNA double helix an adenine of one strand always pairs with a(n) _____ of the complementary strand, and a guanine of one strand always pairs with a(n) _____ of the complementary strand.
each new DNA double helix consists of one old DNA strand and one new DNA strand
After DNA replication is completed, _____.
Helicase
The first step in the replication of DNA is catalyzed by _____.
replication forks and replication bubbles
The action of helicase creates _____.
DNA polymerase can assemble DNA only in the 5' to 3' direction
Why is the new DNA strand complementary to the 3' to 5' strands assembled in short segments?
RNA primer complementary to a preexisting DNA strand
The synthesis of a new strand begins with the synthesis of a(n) _____.
Template
An old DNA strand is used as a _____ for the assembly of a new DNA strand.
DNA polymerase
What catalyzes DNA synthesis?
Primers are short sequences that allow the initiation of DNA synthesis.
Which of the following statements about DNA synthesis is true?
Phosphate groups
Which part of a deoxynucleoside triphosphate (dNTP) molecule provides the energy for DNA synthesis?
Primase
Which of the following enzymes creates a primer for DNA polymerase?
They are formed on the lagging strand of DNA.
Which of the following statements about Okazaki fragments in E. coli is true?
Topoisomerase
Which of the following enzymes is important for relieving the tension in a helix as it unwinds during DNA synthesis?
True
True or false? Single-stranded DNA molecules are said to be antiparallel when they are lined up next to each other but oriented in opposite directions.
Transcription
What is the process called that converts the genetic information stored in DNA to an RNA copy?
Organelles
DNA does not store the information to synthesize which of the following?
A site in DNA that recruits the RNA Polymerase
Transcription begins at a promoter. What is a promoter?
The promoter is a nontranscribed region of a gene.
Which of the following statements best describes the promoter of a protein-coding gene?
Base pairing between the DNA template strand and the RNA nucleotides
What determines which base is to be added to an RNA strand during transcription?
Complementary
Which of the following terms best describes the relationship between the newly synthesized RNA molecule and the DNA template strand?
It is free to bind to another promoter and begin transcription.
What happens to RNA polymerase II after it has completed transcription of a gene?
Carbon Dioxide
Which of the following is/are inputs required for photosynthesis?
Stroma
The Calvin Cycle occurs in the
Carbon Dioxide
What are the Calvin Cycle Inputs?
ATP and NADPH + H+
Non-cyclic photophosphorylation produces (outputs)?
False
A researcher isolates a chloroplast and decreases the pH inside the individual thylakoids. Assuming that there is abundant light energy and CO2 and that there are no other changes to this chloroplast indicate whether the following statement if True or False.

This chloroplast will produce more G3P or glucose than a control chloroplast under the same light and CO2 conditions
True
Based on the previous question indicate whether the following statement is True or False.
The experimental chloroplast will produce more ATP than the control chloroplast.
True
Based on the preceding two questions indicate whether the following statement is True or False.

If the researcher also increased the concentration of NADPH +H+ in the stroma of the experimental chloroplast, but not the control, the experimental chloroplast would produce more G3P or glucose.
sugar-phosphate bonds
The backbone of a DNA strand is composed of
Guanine
In DNA which nitrogenous base would pair with cytosine?
nitrogenous bases
Hydrogen bonds must be broken during the process of DNA replication. These bonds occur between?
modified guanine nucleotide
During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 5' end of the RNA.
a long string of adenine nucleotides
During RNA processing a(n) _____ is added to the 3' end of the RNA.
snRNPs and other proteins
Spliceosomes are composed of _____.
Exons
The RNA segments joined to one another by spliceosomes are _____.
Cytoplasm
Translation occurs in the _____.
5' —> 3'
The direction of synthesis of an RNA transcript is _____.
aminoacyl-tRNA syntheses
What enzyme catalyzes the attachment of an amino acid to tRNA?
CUG
The tRNA anticodon, GAC, is complementary to the mRNA codon with the sequence _____.
P
The initiator tRNA attaches at the ribosome's _____ site.
False
True or false? A codon is a group of three bases that can specify more than one amino acid.
A knock-out mutation results in a total absence of the mutated protein
Which of the following statements about mutations is false?
Deletion
If a DNA sequence is altered from TAGCTGA to TAGTGA, what kind of mutation has occurred?
One addition and one deletion mutation
Which mutation(s) would not change the remainder of the reading frame of a gene sequence that follows the mutation(s)?
Two
If the sequence ATGCATGTCAATTGA were mutated such that a base were inserted after the first G and the third T were deleted, how many amino acids would be changed in the mutant protein?
An addition mutation and a deletion mutation.
If a mutated DNA sequence produces a protein that differs in one central amino acid from the normal protein, which of the following kinds of mutations could have occurred?
Jacob and Monod
The operon model of the regulation of gene expression in bacteria was proposed by _____.
regulatory gene only
Which of these is NOT a component of the lac operon?
The operator
Regulatory proteins bind to _____.
Not transcribed
In the presence of a regulatory protein the lac operon is _____.
DNA polymerase
During DNA replication the enzyme responsible for making the DNA strand is:
CCGGTAAT
If the sequence of nucleotides is
GGCCATTA
what is the sequence of DNA nucleotides on the complementary strand of DNA?
True
During transcription the mRNA strand is produced anti-parallel to the template DNA strand.
5' GGCCUUAA
Transcribe the DNA sequence shown below.
5' TTAAGGCC
introns
During the editing of the initial transcript in a eukaryote what is removed from the sequence?
Nucleus
In eukaryotes the mRNA must be processed prior to translation. Where does this mRNA processing occur?
82
A mRNA molecule contains 246 nucleotides, what is the maximum number of amino acids in the polypeptide translated from this mRNA?
met-pro
Part of the coding region for a piece of DNA is shown below
5' CTAGGGCAT
what is the correct sequence of amino acids produced by this DNA? The choices are listed beginning with the first amino acid added to the polypeptide.
protein
Translation uses the information in mRNA to guide the synthesis of
proteasomes
Enzyme complexes that break down protein are called _____.
regulating the transport of mRNA to the cytoplasm
The nuclear membrane's role in the regulation of gene expression involves _____.
RNA processing
What is the function of a spliceosome?
Protein activation
Protein-phosphorylating enzymes' role in the regulation of gene expression involves _____.
In an inducible operon, an inducer inactivates the repressor.
In an inducible operon, the repressor is synthesized in an active form.
Which statement(s) about inducible operons is/are correct?
A repressible operon is on unless a corepressor is present.
Repressible enzymes generally function in anabolic pathways.
Which statement(s) about repressible operons is/are correct?
Coordinately controlled genes in eukaryotic cells are activated by the same chemical signals.
Coordinately controlled genes in eukaryotic cells share a set of control elements.
How are genes coordinately controlled in eukaryotic cells?
Promoter, Operator and Structural Genes
A procaryotic operon consists of:
Binds to, blocks
In an inducible operon the repressor (alone) ______________ the operator and ____________ transcription.
The inducer
In an inducible operon, in the presence of ________________, the structural genes will be transcribed.
Transcription
Procaryotic genes are generally regulated by preventing .
DNA packing
One type of chromosomal level gene regulation is:
Post-translational
The cleavage and modification of polypeptides after translation would be considered what level of gene regulation?