In addition to the pressure difference, several other factors affect the rate of gas diffusion in a fluid. They are (1) the solubility of the gas in the fluid, (2) the cross-sectional area of the fluid, (3) the distance through which the gas must diffuse, (4) the molecular weight of the gas, and (5) the temperature of the fluid. In the body, the last of these factors, the temperature, remains reasonably constant and usually need not be considered.
The greater the solubility of the gas, the greater the number of molecules available to diffuse for any given partial pressure difference. The greater the cross-sectional area of the diffusion pathway, the greater the total number of molecules that diffuse. Conversely, the greater the distance the molecules must diffuse, the longer it will take the molecules to diffuse the entire distance. Finally, the greater the velocity of kinetic movement of the molecules, which is inversely proportional to the square root of the molecular weight, the greater the rate of diffusion of the gas. All these factors can be expressed in a single formula, as follows: D is proportional to deltaPxAxS over dXsquare root of MW
in which D is the diffusion rate, ΔP is the partial pressure difference between the two ends of the diffusion pathway, A is the cross-sectional area of the pathway, S is the solubility of the gas, d is the distance of diffusion, and MW is the molecular weight of the gas.