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46 terms

Fundamentals of Nursing ch 40: Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance

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acid
susbstance containing a hydrogen ion that can be liberated or released
acidosis
condition characterized by a proportionate excess of hydrogen ions in the extracellular fluid, in which the pH falls below 7.35
active transport
movement of ions or molecules across cell membranes, usually against a pressure gradient and with the expenditure of metabolic energy
agglutinin
an antibody that causes a clumping of specific antigens
alkalosis
condition characterized by a proportionate lack of hydrogen ions in the extracellular fluid concentration, in which the pH exceeds 7.45
anions
ion that carries a negative electric charge
antibody
immunoglobin produced by the body in response to a specific antigen
antigen
foreign material capable of inducing a specific immune response
autologous transfusion
occurs when a patient donates his or her own blood for a transfusion
base
substance that can accept or trap a hydrogen ion synonym for alkali
buffer
substance that prevents body fluid from becoming overly acid or alkaline
cation
ion that carries a positive electric charge
colloid osmotic pressure
pressure exerted by plasma proteins on permeable membranes in the body; synonym for oncotic pressure
cross-matching
act of determining the compatibility of two blood specimens
diffusion
tendency of solutes to move freely throughout a solvent from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration until equilibrium is established
edema
accumulation of fluid in extracellular spaces
electrolytes
substance capable of breaking into ions and developing an electric charge when dissolved in solution
filtration
passage of a fluid through a permeable membrane whose spaces do not allow certain solutes to pass; passage is from an area of higher pressure to one of lower pressure
hydrostatic pressure
force exerted by a fluid against the container wall
hypercalcemia
excess of calcium in the extracellular fluid
hyperkalemia
excess of potassium in the extracellular fluid
hypermagnesemia
excess of magnesium in the extracellular fluid
hypernatremia
excess of sodium in the extracellular fluid
hyperphosphatemia
above-normal serum concentration of inorganic phosphorus
hypertonic
having a greater concentration than the solution with which it is being compared
hypervolemia
excess of plasma
hypocalcemia
insufficient amount of calcium in the extracellular fluid
hypokalemia
insufficient amount of potassium in the extracellular fluid
hypomagnesemia
insufficient amount of magnesium in the extracellular fluid
hyponatremia
insufficient amount of sodium in the extracellular fluid
hypophosphatemia
-below-normal serum concentration of inorganic phorphorus
-muscle pain and tenderness, muscle weakness and paresthesias, confusion, decreased level of consciousness, seizures, anorexia, dysphagia, decreased bowel sounds, possible acute respiratory failure
hypotonic
having a lower concentration of solute than another solution
hypovolemia
-deficiency of blood plasma
-signs of fluid imbalance. Dry mouth, cool feet, weak limb pulse, decrease capillary refill, BP, increase pulse (to offset symptoms), serum osmo, albumin, urea.
ion
atom that has a positive or negative charge
isotonic
having about the same concentration as the solution with which it is being compared
osmolarity
concentration of particles in a solution, or a solution's pulling power
osmosis
passage of a solvent through a semipermeable membrane from an area of lesser concentration to an area of greater concentration until equilibrium is established
pH
expression of hydrogen ion concentration and resulting acidity of a substance
solutes
substance dissolved in a solution
solvents
liquid holding a substance in a solution
typing
determining a person's blood type
thirst mechanism, hypothalamus
Fluid intake is regulated primarily by the _______, which is controlled by the _______.
carbon dioxide levels in the blood
Regulating what is especially crucial in maintaining acid-base balance?
sodium, potassium, calcium, hydrogen, and magnesium
What are the major cations in body fluid?
chloride, bicarbonate, phosphate
What are the major anions in the body?
nonelectrolytes, urea and glucose
What are molecules in the body that remain intact, without a charge called; and what are two examples?