104 terms

Orientation of the body

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Anatomy
The study of the structure and shape of the bodyy and its parts
Physiology
The study of how the body and its oarts work or function
Median or Midsaggital
The midline longitudinal plane dividing the head and torso into right and left halves
Sagittal
A longitudinal plane dividing the body into right and left parts. It is parallel to the median plane.
Frontal or Coronal
A longitudinal plane dividing the body into front and back halves or parts.
Transverse, Horizontal, or Cross section
Divides the body into upper and lower halves or parts. It is perpendicular to the longitudinal planes.
Respiratory system
The upper (nose through larynx) and lower respiratory track (trachea through the air spaces of lungs).
Digestive system
Concerned with the breakdown, digestion, and Assimilation of foods as well as excreation.
Urinary system
Consevation of water and maintance of acid-base balance. Kidneys are the main function of system.
Immune/ lymphoid system
Organs concerned i
With body diffense, a dicise arrangement of immune related cells, concerned with resistance to invasive microorganisms and removal of damaged or abnormal cells.
Reproductive system
Concerned with the excreation if sex hormones.
Atoms
Tiny building blocks of matter, combine to form molecules.
Cells
The smallest unit of all living things.
Tissues
Consists of groups of similar cells that have a common function.
Organ
A structure composed of two or more tissue types that preform a specific function for the body.
Organ System
A group of organs that work together to accomplish a common purpose.
Organism
Represents the highest level of structural organization.
Integumentary System
The external covering of the body. Waterproofs the body and cushions and protects the deeper tissues from injury.
Skeletal System
Consists of bones, cartilages, ligaments, and joints. Supports the body and provides framework that the skeletal muscles use to cause movement.
Muscular System
The muscles of the body have one function- to contract, or shorten.
Nervous System
The body's fast acting control system. It consists of the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and sensory receptors.
Endocrine System
Controls body activities, but it acts much more slowly.
Cardiovascular System
Carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and other substances to and from the tissue cells where exchanges are made.
Lymphatic System
Complements cardiovascular system. Return leaked fluid from the blood back to the blood vessels so that blood can be kept continuously circulating through the body.
Movement
Includes all activities promoted be the muscular system, such as propelling ourselves from one place to another.
Responsiveness Irritability
The ability to sense changes in the environment and then to react to them.
Digestion
Process of breaking down ingested food into simple molecules that can then be absorbed into the blood.
Metabolism
All chemical reactions that occur within the body cells.
Excretion
The process of removing waste from the body.
Reproduction
The production of off spring, can occur on the cellular or organismal level.
Homeostasis
The body's ability to maintain relatively stable internal conditions even though the outside world is continuously chaining.
Receptor
Some type of sensor that monitors and responds to changes in the environment.
Control Center
Determines the level at which a variable is to be maintained, analyze the information it receives and then determines the appropriate response or course of infection.
Effector
Provides the means for the control centers response to the stimulus.
Negative Feedback Mechanisms
The net effect of the response to the stimulus is to shut off the original stimulus or reduce its intensity.
Positive Feedback Mechanisms
Tend to increase the original disturbance and to push the variable farther from its original value.
Directional Terms
Allow medical personnel and anatomists to explain exactly where one body structure is in relation to another.
Superior, Cranial, or Cephalic
Toward the head end or upper part of a structure or the body, above.
Inferior, Caudal
away from the head end or toward the lower part of a structure or the body, below.
Ventral, Anterior
Toward or at the front of the body, front.
Dorsal, Posterior
Toward or at the backside of the body, behind.
Medial
Toward or at the midline of the body, on the inner side of.
Lateral
Away from the midline of the body, on the outer side of.
Proximal
Close to the origin of the body part or point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk.
Distal
Farther from the origin of a body part or the point of attachment of a limb to the body trunk.
Superficial, External
Toward or at the body surface.
Deep, Internal
Away from the body surface; more internal.
Abdominal
Anterior body trunk inferior to ribs.
Acromial
Point of shoulder.
Antebrachial
Forearm.
Antecubital
Anterior surface of elbow.
Axillary
Armpit.
Brachial
Arm.
Buccal
Cheek area.
Carpal
Wrist.
Cervical
Neck region.
Coxal
Hip.
Crural
Leg.
Deltoid
Curve of shoulder formed by large deltoid muscle.
Digital
Finger, toes.
Femoral
Thigh.
Fibular
Lateral part of leg.
Frontal
Forehead.
Inguinal
Area where thigh meets body trunk, groin.
Nasal
Nose area.
Oral
Mouth.
Orbital
Eye area.
Patellar
Anterior knee.
Pelvic
Area overlying the pelvis anteriorly.
Pubic
Genital region.
Sternal
Breastbone area.
Tarsal
Ankle region.
Thoracic
Chest.
Umbilical
Naval.
Calcaneal
Heel of foot.
Cephalic
Head.
Gluteal
Buttock.
Lumbar
Area of back between ribs and hips.
Occipital
Posterior surface of head.
Olecranial
Posterior surface of elbow.
Popliteal
Posterior knee area.
Sacral
Area between hips.
Scapular
Shoulder blade region.
Sural
The posterior surface of lower leg; the calf.
Vertebral
Area of spine.
Plantar
The sole of the foot.
Cranial Cavity
The space inside the bony skull.
Spinal Cavity
Extends from the cranial cavity nearly to the end of the vertebral column.
Thoracic cavity
Separated from the rest of the ventral cavity by a dome shaped muscle.
Diaphragm
Separates the thoracic cavity and the ventral cavity.
Mediastinum
Separates the lungs into right and left cavities in the thoracic cavity.
Abdominopelvic Cavity
Subdivide it into a superior abdominal cavity and inferior pelvic cavity.
Abdominal Cavity
Containing the stomach, liver, intestines, and other organs.
Pelvic Cavity
With the reproductive organs, bladder, and rectum.
Umbilical Region
The centermost region, deep to and surrounding the umbilicus.
Epigastric Region
Located superior to the umbilical region
Hypogastric Region
Is inferior to the umbilical region.
Right and Left Iliac or Inguinal Region
Are lateral to the hypogastric region.
Right and Left Lumbar Region
Lie lateral to the umbilical region.
Right and Left Hypochondriac Region
Flank the epigastric region and contain the lower ribs.
Oral Cavity
Commonly called the mouth, contains teeth and tongue.
Nasal Cavity
Located within and posterior to the nose, the nasal cavity is part of the respiratory system passageways.
Orbital Cavity
The skull house the eyes and present them in anterior position.
Middle Ear Cavity
carved into the skull lie just medial to the eardrums. These cavities contain tiny bones that transmit sound vibrations to the hearing receptors in the inner ear.