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Geology ch 1-4
Terms in this set (100)
Science assumes the natural world is ___________________ and ____________________.
Goal of science is discover patterns in __________________ and to use the knowledge to make predictions.
_______ is the name for all the sciences that collectively seek to understand Earth and its place in our solar system.
_____ is the study of Earth.
_____ is the study of the oceans.
_____ is the study of the atmosphere.
_______ is the study of the universe
The Earth's four spheres are ________, _______, ________ and ________.
Atmosphere, Biosphere, Geosphere, Hydrosphere
The _______ is the solid Earth.
The Atmosphere provides the air we breathe and protection against harmful _____ from the Sun.
The ____ covers nearly 71 percent of Earth's surface and contains about 97 percent of Earth's water.
Earth is divided into three major layers by composition the _____, _____ and _____.
Core, Mantle, Crust
The outer core is _____ and the inner core is _____.
The _____ drives external processes of the earth system such as weather, ocean circulation and erosional processes.
The decay of _____ elements drives internal processes including volcanoes, earthquakes and mountain building.
_____ resources can be replenished over relatively short periods of time.
Fossil Fuels and metals are an examples of _______ resources because the Earth contains a fixed amount of these substances and when the present supplies are used up there will be no more.
Earth is ___ years old.
The Nebular Hypothesis states that solar system evolved from an enormous rotating cloud called the ______ composed of hydrogen and helium.
_____ is a model of how the Earth works.
The Earth's rigid outermost solid layer is fragmented into _____ of various sizes that move over a warmer, softer, underlying layer.
Rocks are composed of ______.
______ chemical compounds made up of two or more elements bonded together.
______ are atoms of an element that have a different number of neutrons in the nucleus.
The rate _____ of an isotope can be used to determine the ages of fossils, rocks and minerals.
A ________ is an inorganic, naturally occurring, solid substance with an orderly crystalline structure and definite chemical composition.
Minerals have _____ physical properties.
The ability to of a mineral transmit light is called ______.
If light and an image can be transmitted thru a mineral the clarity is ______.
If no light can be transmitted thru a mineral the clarity is ____.
_______ is the Appearance of how light reflects from the surface of a mineral.
The terms _____ and _____ are used to describe the luster of a mineral.
Metallic, Non Metallic
The color of a mineral in its powdered form is called its _____.
A mineral's ________ is usually the same for all varieties of that mineral.
_______ is the resistance of a mineral to scratching or abrasion.
All minerals are compared to a standard scale called the _______
Mohs Hardness Scale
______ is the tendency of a mineral to break along planes of weak bonding to produce flat, shiny surfaces.
______will effervesce or fizz when tested with dilute hydrochloric acid. (HCI)
The 8 elements that compose most _____ minerals are oxygen (O), silicon (Si), aluminum (Al), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), potassium (K), and magnesium (Mg).
The most abundant atoms in the Earth's crust are __________________ and ________________.
______ are the most common mineral group and contain the silicon-oxygen tetrahedron molecules.
Carbonates are a major rock forming group found primarily in ___________________________ rocks.
________ resources are occurrences of useful minerals that will eventually be extracted.
_______ are concentrations of metallic minerals that can be mined at a profit.
Rocks can be classified according to their ____________ compositions and how they form during the rock cycle.
The ______________ produces three general families of rock: Igneous, Sedimentary and Metamorphic.
_______ is molten material generated by the partial melting of rocks in Earth's mantle and lower crust.
Magma at the earths surface is called ______.
Igneous rocks formed inside Earth are called _________________or plutonic rocks
Igneous rocks formed on or near the surface are called _________________ or volcanic rocks.
_______ size is determined by the rate of cooling. Extrusive igneous rocks have fine grained or glassy textures. Intrusive igneous rocks have coarse grained textures.
_________ rocks are classified based on their texture and mineral composition.
________ igneous rocks are composed almost entirely of light-colored silicates - quartz and feldspar.
_______ igneous rocks are composed of dark silicate minerals and plagioclase feldspar.
Sedimentary rocks form from ___________________.
(particles produced by weathering of other rocks)
Sedimentary rocks are an important economic ____________ because they contain coal, petroleum, natural gas, ground water and metals.
_______ sedimentary rocks form from solid particles of other rocks that have been weathered and transported.
________ is the most abundant detrital sedimentary rock.
__________ sedimentary rocks are derived from material that was once in solution and precipitates to form sediment.
_______ the most abundant chemical sedimentary rock.
Limestone ( made of calcite)
Lithification is the process by which loose sediments are transformed into
The layers called ________________ or __________________ are the most characteristic feature of sedimentary rocks.
_________________ is the transition of one rock type into another caused by increased temperatures and/or pressures unlike those in which it formed.
Metamorphic _________________ is the degree to which the parent rock changes during metamorphism.
_____________ metamorphism occurs near a body of magma and results from the rise in temperature as the magma invades the host rock
_________________ metamorphism occurs in areas where plates collide and produces the greatest volume of metamorphic rock
__________ is the most important metamorphic agent.
In metamorphic rocks with _______________________ texture the mineral grains are aligned perpendicular to the compressional force.
Metamorphic rocks with __________________________ texture contain equidimensional crystals and look like a coarse-grained igneous rock.
Slate, Schist, and Gniess are examples __________ Metamorphic rocks.
_________________ and ____________________ are examples of nonfoliated Metamorphic rocks.
___________ is the parent rock of marble.
__________ is the parent rock of quartzite.
______________ involves the physical breakdown and chemical alteration of rock at or near the surface of the Earth.
_______ weathering involves physical forces breaking rocks into smaller pieces.
_________ weathering and _______________ weathering work simultaneously and reinforce each other.
____________ also known as freeze and thaw occurs as water that has entered cracks in the rock freezes into ice, it expands and enlarges the cracks.
____________ is the most important agent in Chemical Weathering.
The silicate mineral _________________________ chemically weathers into clay minerals.
Warm, moist climates accelerate _________________ weathering while cold, dry climates inhibit it
The rate of ______________________ is influenced by rock type and climate.
________ is made up of mineral and organic matter, water and air.
________ is the surface configuration of an area.
Soil is divided into horizontal layers called _________.
The vertical section through all the soil horizons is called a _________________________.
_______ is a mixture of sand, silt and clay that is best suited for plant life.
Natural rates of _______________________ depend on soil characteristics, Climate, Slope and Type of vegetation.
A process called _______________________ __________________________ concentrates metals like Aluminum, Silver and Copper into economical deposits.
The downslope movement of rock, regolith, and soil under the direct influence of gravity is called __________.
________ is the controlling force of Mass wasting.
Oversteepened slopes are ____________________ and can trigger mass wasting.
The steepest angle that a slope can maintain without collapsing is called the _______________ ____ ________________.
Angle of Repose
Types of _________ processes are defined by the material involved, the movement of the material and the rate of the movement.
The rapid movement of a mass of rock or unconsolidated material along a curved surface is called ______________________.
__________ are generally very fast and destructive.
__________ is the process where loosely packed, water-saturated surface sediments behave like a fluid and flow during the ground shaking of an earthquake.
__________ is the slow movement of soil and regolith downhill that can cause trees and fences tilt.
Debris flows composed mostly of volcanic materials are called __________.
_______________ is permanently frozen ground that occurs in tundra and ice-cap climates regions.
When ________ thaws it produces an unstable ground .
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