Terms in this set (35)
A group of states or territories controlled by one ruler
A city-state in ancient Greece.
literally "high point of the city". The upper fortified part of an ancient Greek city, usually devoted to religious purposes
rulers who seized power by force from the aristocrats
A form of government in which citizens govern themselves
A government ruled by a few powerful people
enslaved people of Sparta - usually captured Messenians and Laconians
a group of 5 officials that helped govern Sparta with the Council of Elders
A road for the government use built by the ancient Persian ruler Darius which helped unite the empire
Persian military force that was never allowed to fall below ten thousand. When a member was killed, they were immediately replaced.
Battle of Marathon
(490 B.C.E.) Battle where the Persians who invaded Greece were defeated on the Plain of Marathon by an Athenian army.
Battle of Thermopylae
(480 B.C.E.) Battle in which Spartan king Leonidas and his army of 300 Spartans and other Greeks refused to surrender to the numerically superior Persian army at the pass of Thermopylae; they were annihilated to the man but allowed the other Greek forces to prepare for the next Persian invasion.
(321-185 BCE) This was the first empire to unify India. founder was Chandragupta Maurya.
nomadic warriors in modern day Afghainstan and Northern India traded along the silk road- silk, spices, jewels, silver, tin
An ancient trade route between China and the Mediterranean Sea extending 4,000 mi and linking China with the Roman Empire.
Powerful Indian state based in the Ganges Valley. It controlled most of the Indian subcontinent through military force
the Chinese dynasty (from 246 BC to 206 BC) that established the first centralized imperial government and built much of the Great Wall
A Chinese philosophy that emphasizes strict obedience to laws and harsh penalties for those who broke the laws.
The Great Wall of China
Chinese defensive fortification designed to keep out nomadic invaders from the north. It was started during the Qin dynasty.
(202 BC - 220 AD) dynasty started by Lui Bang; a great and long-lasting rule, it discarded the harsh policies of the Qin dynasty and adopted Confucian principles
Beginning in the 700s BCE, first rulers of Roman Republic and Empire; Laid the foundation for Rome and Roman civilization
A form of government in which the people elect representatives to govern them and make laws.
The wealthy, land owning, aristocrats during the early Roman era.
All non-land-owning, free men in Ancient Rome
Two officials from the patrician class were appointed each year of the Roman Republic to supervise the government and command the armies
government officials who interpret the law and serve as judges
Twelve Tables of Rome
Written set of laws that stated the rules of behavior for members of Roman society. Although the laws favored the wealthy, these laws created stability (order) since they were displayed in public for all to see.
First Punic War
The battles in which the Romans fought to conquer Sicily, which was owned by Carthage. Rome also claimed Sardinia and Corsica
Second Punic War
The war in which the Romans started uprisings in Carthaginian Spain, which caused Hannibal to attack the Romans. The main leaders in this war were Hannibal and Scipio and included the battles at Cannae and Zama
Third Punic War
149- 146 B.C. Cause- roman veterans sought revenge from destruction of second war (farms, animals, and walls were destoyed). Result- Rome wins, carthage totally destroyed, sold population to slavery, salted fields, burned city
A group of three rulers with equal power
The First Triumvirate
Pompey, Crassus, and Julius Caesar
The Second Triumvirate
Mark Antony, Octavian, and Lepidus
A ruler who has absolute power over a country or empire
A time in history when the Roman Empire was at peace and promoted safe trade.