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AP II: Chapter 14 Test 1
Terms in this set (52)
thin layer between the plasma and the RBCs when blood components are separated
Define the buffy coat
This is a type of connective tissue suspended in a liquid matrix. It transports vital substances and distributes heat.
8%, 5 L
How much of body weight does blood take up? Adult volume?
blood cells plus plasma
What makes up blood
What's another name for blood?
red bone marrow
Where is blood made in?
3; RBC, WBC, platelets
How many types of blood are there? What are they?
RBCs, WBCs, and platelets
The formed elements (the solid portion of blood) includes what?
a thin layer of WBCs and platelets that forms between the plasma and the RBCs when a blood-filled capillary tube is centrifuged , separating blood components
describe the buffy coat
percentage of RBCs
What is the hematocrit? (HCT)
packed cell volume (PCV)
Aside hematocrit (HCT), what is another name for the percentage of RBCs?
Mainly used for HIV and Hepatitis B virus, but applies to others too; designed for, and work well in, preventing transmission of viral illnesses in settings already relatively safe.
What are universal precautions?
It is a clear, straw-colored liquid part of the blood in which the cells and platelets are suspended. It is approximately 92% water and 7% proteins, as well as makes up 55% of blood volume. It contains a variety of ions called electrolytes, since they ionize in water and can conduct electricity. Plasma carries nutrients, gases, hormones, and vitamins, as well as help regulate fluid and electrolyte balance; and maintaining a favorable pH.
Describe blood plasma
It is the formation of blood cells, which originates in red bone marrow from hematopoietic stem cells (hemocytoblasts)
lymphoid stem cells, myeloid stem cells
When HSCs (hemopoietic stem cells) divide, the new cells, ... and ..., respond to hematopoietic growth factors that turn on some genes and turn off others.
Example(s) of lymphoid stem cells?
Example(s) of myeloid stem cells?
They are biconcave disc-shaped erythrocytes that transfer blood from lungs to tissues. They extrude nuclei as they mature, providing more space for hemoglobin, and lack mitochondria. They need iron to make hemoglobin and take 4 days to make with a 120-day life span.
Red blood cell formation that initially occurs in the yolk sac, liver, and spleen.
It is when the O2-carrying capacity of the blood is reduced due to the deficiency of RBCs or hemoglobin
iron deficiency, sick-cell
Give 2 examples of anemia
They are leukocytes with 5 different types in 2 categories: Granulocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils; Agranulocytes: lymphocytes, monocytes
Granulocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils. Agranulocytes: lymphocytes, monocytes
WBCs include 5 types in 2 categories. Name them.
About twice the size of RBCs; cytoplasmic granules are present and short lived
Cytoplasmic granules are absent
They contain a lobed nucleus (2-5 sections). They are the first to arrive @ infection site and are strong phagocytes. They are elevated in bacterial infections and make up 60% of leukocytes.
Granulocytes: describe neutrophils
They contain a bi-lobed nucleus. They moderate allergic reactions and defend against parasitic worm infestation.
Granulocytes: describe eosinophils
They are similar to eosinophils in size and shape of their nuclei. However, they have fewer, more irregularly-shaped cytoplasmic granules. They also release histamine to stimulate inflammation, as well as release heparin to inhibit blood clotting.
Granulocytes: describe basophils
They are the largest WBCs that leave bloodstream to become macrophages that phagocytize bacteria, dead cells, and other debris in the tissues.
Agranulocytes: describe monocytes
The largest of the WBCs (2-3 times greater in diameter than RBCs). Contain spherical, kidney-shaped, oval, or lobed nuclei. They leave the bloodstream and become macrophages that phagocytize (eat)
bacteria, dead cells ,and other debris in the tissue (can live up to several weeks-months).
the smallest of the WBCs, only slightly larger than erythrocytes (RBCs), with a large, spherical nucleus surrounded by a thin layer of cytoplasm. Major types include T cells and B cells, which are both important for immunity.
Agranulocytes: describe lymphocytes
They directly attack microorganisms, tumor cells, and transplanted cells
Describe T cells
produce antibodies, which are proteins that attack foreign molecules;
account for 25% of leukocytes and may live for years
Describe B cells
3,500 - 10,500 WBCS
The normal microliter of blood includes how much WBCs?
A high blood count exceeding 10,500 per microliter of blood , which indicates acute infection and follow vigorous exercise, emotional disturbances, or great loss of body fluids
A low blood count below 3,500 per microliter of blood, which may accompany typhoid fever, influenza, measles, mumps, chicken pox, AIDS, or poliomyelitis
These cellular fragments (NOT cells) are also known as thrombocytes that help hemostasis (stoppage of bleeding) from damaged blood vessels. Needs vitamin K for functions of some of the clotting factors.
It is a blood clot abnormally forming in a vessel
Fate of blood clots: describe a thrombus
A clot that dislodges, or a fragment of a clot that breaks loose and is carried away by the blood flow
Fate of blood clots: describe an embolus
pulmonary embolism after prolonged periods of immobility on flights
Describe Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT)
molecules that triggers an immune response
Describe Antigens (AG)
proteins that react against a specific antigen
Describe Antibodies (AB)
(Clumping) of the donated RBCs
A, B, Rh antigens
Only ..., ..., and ... ... on RBCs can cause transfusion reactions
Antigens A and B are what?
a chemical test to determine blood type; it types blood into major groups by identifying RBC antigens
A, B, O, and AB
What are the 4 Blood types?
Which blood type is universal donor? Universal recipient?
presence of antigen D on RBC membranes
The Rh Blood group: describe Rh+
no antigen D on RBC membranes
The Rh blood group: describe Rh-
...% of people are Rh+
a hemolytic disease of the newborns
What is erythroblastosis fetalis?
This set is often in folders with...
AP II: Chapter 13 Review- Part I
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