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human ecology

study of surroundings of humans and effects they produce in their lives


-individuals and groups are both biological and social by nature
-humans are dependent on their environment
-humans are finite and their lifecycle imposes time as a constraint and resource (15 get permit, year to practice)
-human interactions are spatially organized
-human behavior understood on many levels
-2 levels most used: population and individual


a set of mutual dependencies in a population


a stable set of activities that provide a function for maintenance or adaptation of organisms in the environment, space or relationship inhabited by members of an ecosystem

adaptive range

restrictive continuum within which a particular organism develops


an organisms ability to acclimate to changes within the environment


-family is the key microsystem (family functions both looking inward/outward)
-dual impact of the family
-dyad smallest unit of interaction
-with development, an organism changes interactions in development
-family closure (have to protect/support families, may just look internally)
-continuous need for change

ecological systems theory

investigate both person and environment

ecological systems theory ground rules

-The person is dynamic that constantly moves into and restructures the setting it resides in
-The environment also create an influence on the person (mutual accommodation)
-There is not a single influencing environment, but instead a series of interconnected, yet, different, levels of a larger environmental system

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