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30 terms

earths interior

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seismic waves
vibrations that travel through earth carrying the energy released during a earth quake
pressure
the force exerted on a surface divided by the area over which the force is exerted
crust
the layer of rock that forms the earths outer surface
basalt
a dark dense igneous rock with a fine texture found in oceanic crust
granite
a usually light colored igneous rock that is found in contential crust
mantle
the layer of hot solid material between earths crust and core
lithosphere
a rigid layer that is made up of the uppermost part of the mantle and the crust
outer core
a layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of earth
inner core
a dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of earth
radiation
the transfer of energy through space
convection
the transfer of heat by movement of a fluid
conduction
teh transfer of heat within a material or between material that are touching
density
the amount of mass in a given mass per mass per volume
convection current
the mobement of a fluid caused by differences in temperature that transfers heat from one part of the fluid to another
continental drift
the hypothesis that the contients slowly move across the earths surface
Pangea
the name of the single land mass that broke apart 200 million years ago and gave a rise to todays contients
fossil
a trace of an ancient organism that has been preserved in rock
mid-ocean ridge
an undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced a divergent plate boundary
sea-floor spreading
the process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor
sonar
a device that determines the distance of an object under water by recording echoes of sound waves
deep-ocean trench
a deep valley alond the ocean floor beneath which oceanic crust slowly sinks toward the mantle
subduction
the process in which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent plate
plate
a section of the lithosphere that slowly moves over the asthenosphere carrying pieces of continental and oceanic crust
scientific theroy
a well-tested concept that explains a wide-range of observations
plate tectonics
the theory that pieces of earths lithosphere are in constant motion driven by convection currents in the mantle
fault
a break in earths crust where masses of rock slip past each other
divergent boundary
a plate boundary where two plates move away from each other
rift valley
a deep valley that forms where two plates move apart
convergent boundary
a plate boundary where two plates move toward each other
transform boundary
a plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions