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seismic waves

vibrations that travel through earth carrying the energy released during a earth quake


the force exerted on a surface divided by the area over which the force is exerted


the layer of rock that forms the earths outer surface


a dark dense igneous rock with a fine texture found in oceanic crust


a usually light colored igneous rock that is found in contential crust


the layer of hot solid material between earths crust and core


a rigid layer that is made up of the uppermost part of the mantle and the crust

outer core

a layer of molten iron and nickel that surrounds the inner core of earth

inner core

a dense sphere of solid iron and nickel at the center of earth


the transfer of energy through space


the transfer of heat by movement of a fluid


teh transfer of heat within a material or between material that are touching


the amount of mass in a given mass per mass per volume

convection current

the mobement of a fluid caused by differences in temperature that transfers heat from one part of the fluid to another

continental drift

the hypothesis that the contients slowly move across the earths surface


the name of the single land mass that broke apart 200 million years ago and gave a rise to todays contients


a trace of an ancient organism that has been preserved in rock

mid-ocean ridge

an undersea mountain chain where new ocean floor is produced a divergent plate boundary

sea-floor spreading

the process by which molten material adds new oceanic crust to the ocean floor


a device that determines the distance of an object under water by recording echoes of sound waves

deep-ocean trench

a deep valley alond the ocean floor beneath which oceanic crust slowly sinks toward the mantle


the process in which oceanic crust sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle at a convergent plate


a section of the lithosphere that slowly moves over the asthenosphere carrying pieces of continental and oceanic crust

scientific theroy

a well-tested concept that explains a wide-range of observations

plate tectonics

the theory that pieces of earths lithosphere are in constant motion driven by convection currents in the mantle


a break in earths crust where masses of rock slip past each other

divergent boundary

a plate boundary where two plates move away from each other

rift valley

a deep valley that forms where two plates move apart

convergent boundary

a plate boundary where two plates move toward each other

transform boundary

a plate boundary where two plates move past each other in opposite directions

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