27 terms

Earth Science Unit 2 Vocabulary

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Cementation
The process by sediment grains are bound together to form sedimentary rock.
Compression
A type of stress that squeezes and shortens a body; associated with a convergent plate boundary and mountain building.
Convergent boundary
A boundary that occurs when two tectonic plates collide.
Divergent boundary
The boundary between two tectonic plates moving away from each other.
Dome mountain
Formed from rising magma that pushed the overlying rock layers upward to form a dome shape, without the magma breaking through the surface
Extrusive igneous
A rock that forms from the cooling and solidification of LAVA at the Earth's surface
Fault
A break in a body of rock along which one block slides past another
Fault block mountain
Very large blocks of rock, created by tectonic stresses in the Earth's crust
Folded mountain
Formed mainly by the effects of folding on layers within the upper part of the Earth's crust
Foliation
The metamorphic rock texture in which mineral grains are arranged in planes or bands
Geothermometers
Minerals whose presence defines a minimum temperature a rock must have achieved in order to complete the metamorphic process
Igneous
Type of rock formed from liquid, molten material; from the Latin "on fire".
Isostasy
A condition when the forces of gravity and buoyancy are balanced between the crust and the mantle
Intrusive igneous
A rock formed from the cooling and solidification of MAGMA beneath the Earth's surface
Lava
Molten rock that flows from a volcano or from a crack in the Earth
Magma
Molten material beneath or within the earth's crust, from which igneous rock is formed
Metamorphic
Rocks formed when igneous, sedimentary, or other metamorphic rocks undergo a physical and/or chemical change due to extreme heat and pressure
Offset spreading
A feature associated with a transform fault that may occur in the portion of a fracture zone
Rift Valley
Formed on a divergent plate boundary, a spreading apart of the surface, which is further deepened by the forces of erosion
Rock Cycle
The series in which rock forms, changes from one type to another, is destroyed and forms again by geologic processes.
Sea Floor Spreading
Occurs at mid-ocean ridges where new oceanic crust is formed through volcanic activity and then gradually moves away from the ridge
Sedimentary
Rocks formed when sediment is deposited and becomes tightly compacted
Shear
A stress that distorts a body by pushing and twisting parts of the body in opposite directions.
Stress
The amount of force exerted on each unit of area
Subduction Zone
A region where one plates moves beneath another plate; associated with oceanic crust sliding under continental crust
Tension
A stress that stretches and pulls a body apart.
Transform boundary
The boundary between plates sliding past each other horizontally.
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