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Arts and Humanities
History of Europe
Absolutism/ English Revolution/ The Enlightenment: includes the Scientific Revolution
Terms in this set (55)
He had absolute power in France. He was also called the Sun King which made France the strongest country in Europe. He also believed in divine right of the Kings. The king received the right to rule and power from God. Therefore the people had no say. Kings didn't have to answer the people. His long reign was inscribed by the expansion of French influence in Europe and by the magnificence of his court and the Palace of Versailles.
Regent / Regency
To rule in the King's name until he is old enough to rule
Ultimate power in the hands of one absolute power
The king received the right to rule and power from God. So the people have no say to anything. The King's doesn't have to answer to the people.
Louis XIV built this Palace of Versailles. 12 miles outside of Paris just far enough from Paris for his own safety; it had 20,000 acres; 1,400 fountains and 1,300 rooms; 4,000 nobles lived in Versailles so that Louis can keep an eye on them and keep them busy at work. He has over half the taxes of France that were used to maintain the court, the palace and gardens. He also destroyed all the bill for Versailles.
This is another name Louis XIV was called. When the earth depends on the sun for its existence, the people of France depend on Louis as well. The Sun King made France the strongest country in Europe, by strengthening armies, building Versailles and using costly and inefficient methods of tax collecting except for the nobles. Mercantilism, removal of the Calvinists from royal councils and will restrict power of Parliament.
L'etat c'est moi
"I am the state" (I am the government, I am France) Lous XIV had the absolute power.
The nobles came up of the idea to have a Magna Carta, which is also known as the Charter. The Magna Carta was read in every Church in England. The Magna Carta is the first document to limit King John's power, which he no longer had absolute power. King John fled to Runnymede where the nobles forced him to sign the Magna Carta. Also, Stephen Langhton who was an archbishop was also forced to sign the Magna Carta. The king was forced to agree with two out 36 important, different clauses which consisted of a very important one in which no one would be imprisoned, deprived of his property, exiled, or be destroyed in any way, unless by legal judgment of his peers, or by the law of the land. Another clause was that no taxes were to be raised except with the consent of the great council, which is includes the nobles and clergy, but later the council was then called Parliament which has two houses: The House of Lords and The House of Commons. Other clauses that were in the Magna Carta are limited government, rule of law, balance of power, power of the purse, private property and due process.
It is a British legislature that consists of two houses: the House of Lords and the House of Commons. It is where the law making of British government goes to.
House of Lords
It is part of Parliament that consists of Lords also known as the Upper House. The members that inherited titles or have given one by the Queen.
House of Commons
It represents the people in Parliament also known as the Lower House. They are elected to the office.
Is a form of government in which the citizens of that country hold power.
A long line of ruler from the same family.
A state in which absolute monarch and monarch's power is limited by a constitution.
A government in which the citizens elect the leaders.
Queen Elizabeth I kicks the bucket-no heirs. Her royal family dies- the Tudor Dynasty. The Tudor dynasty ruled England with 7 rulers. The first ruler was Henry VII, Henry VIII along with his 6 wives; Katharine of Aragon, Anne Boleyn, Jane Seymour, Anne of Cleves, Catherine Howard, and Katharine Parr, Edward VI, Jane I, Mary I and Elizabeth I.
A family who were the first kings that ruled England after Queen Elizabeth I died with no hair. It was called the Stuart Dynasty who are James I of Scotland; Charles I along with Charles II, James II and William and Mary and Anne.
He is the son of James I, who was the King of England and Scotland and Ireland. From 1625-1649, he believed in divine right of the kings; he levied taxes without consent of the Parliament; he forced loans from people; he imprisoned who would no loan him money and opponents without a fair trail. In addition, he persecuted the Puritans even though some were member of the Parliament; he also ruled without Parliament for 11 years from 1629-1640. He forced Scotland to become more Angligan in religion and they rebelled. When he became king, he needed money to put down the Scots, he calls Parliament but they don't give it to him, but shortly after that he votes to limit power which he then dissolved the Parliament which leads to a English Civil War from 1642-1649. Parliament wins the war and Charles I gets beheaded by Oliver Cromwell.
In the English Civil War, the Parliament army was led by Oliver Cromwell who he called the Roundheads which were also known as the Puritans or House of Commons. Then he became the Lord Protector of the English Commonwealth. Thereafter, Parliament chooses Cromwell to become the head of the government, but he noticed that Parliament doesn't get anything done, so he shuts down Parliament and becomes that ruler of a military dictator or the new model army from 1649-1658. He forces strict Puritan moral codes on England such as no dancing, no athletic games, no theatre or newspapers;basically no fun! He also got rid of King Charles I.
After Cromwell died, England was fed up and annoyed with Parliament. They voted to restore monarchy and invited Charles II, the son of Charles I to be the King of England. This was called the restoration period from 1660-1685.
He was the next to rule from 1685-1688, after Charles II and was his brother, who was not very smart. He caused many problems that offended subject and violated English rule. He converts Catholicism; appoints the Catholics to high positions in government, army, navy and universities; along with Parliament who didn't rebel due to James being old of age and having two Protestant daughters, Mary and Anne from his first wife. With all that happened, he had a son from his second wife who turned out to be Catholic. In addition, Parliament invites William and Mary in Orange (Holland) who is the husband of James' II daughter, Mary, to invade England and Parliament forces James II to leave.
William and Mary
they were invited by Parliament to invade England. They were the first joint monarchy. They were the last Stuart to be King of England and Ireland and Scotland. They signed the Bill of Rights.
(English) Bill of Rights
This puts restrictions on kings and gives Parliament almost all the power which was created by William and Mary. Parliament offers the throne to William and Mary and they much sign the Bill of Rights which states that: the monarchy could not suspend any laws without the consent of Parliament; approval by Parliament was needed to raise taxes and maintain any army; Parliamentary debates and elections; individuals were guaranteed the right to a trail by jury, cruel and unusual punishments were outlawed and the King or Queen of England must be Angligan (Protestant).
At the end of the absolute monarch and when it became limited, also known as constitutional monarchy and it was the end of divine rights of all the kings. Parliament had a firm supreme over the king since England turned Parliament forever. This is a good peaceful transformation for England from James II to William and Mary with no bloodshed with no one losing their head and no civil war.
In 1660, when Parliament restored monarchy to King Charles II to the throne after the rule of Oliver Cromwell.
THE ENLIGHTENMENT: INCLUDES THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
THE ENLIGHTENMENT: INCLUDES THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION:
The Age of Reason
During the Enlightenment philosophers felt they could use their reason (which included math and science) to discover these natural laws that govern human behavior and create the most "natural" forms of government, society and economy which this period has been called the Age of Reason.
Writers of this period were called philosophers which is a French word that mean Philosopher. They threw the word "light" on the abuses of government and customs of the period which then became the term Enlightenment.
Using Science and reason for these natural laws, they thought they could solve all problems for everything in the physical world. Most people became very optimistic about what science is and what it could teach us in the world. They took full grants of the nobility and the absolute monarchs as well as adding traditions and superstitions to the Catholic Church and monarch nobility.
A scientific method is an investigation that involves observation and theories to test scientific hypotheses. In the 1500's and 1600's, inventions were made such as the microscope and telescope and a number of other discoveries. there have been improved methods of research such as the scientific method which led to an exploration of knowledge which is now known as the scientific revolution. It became a threefold approach to study the natural world.
They are writers and thinkers of the Enlightenment, who expanded on Locke's data of natural rights. Also, they wanted to bring the light of knowledge into the Age of Enlightenment because they threw "light" on the abuses of government and made it the period of Enlightenment. Some were John Locke, Adam Smith, Kepler, Copernicus, Galileo and Newton.
They are the thinks who looked for natural laws to explain economics. Their ideas laid the foundation for Adam Smith and the Classical Economists. They are a core system called Physiocrats who are the "power of nature, " that is a system based on and believed in the existence of a "natural order." They are anti-mercantilism which urges rulers to encourage farming instead of hoarding gold and silver and fave free market on which all good can be bought and sold without controls. Also they are in favor of Laissez-faire.
He was a Polish mathematician and astronomer. He felt that Ptolmey's geocentric system was false and Copernicus came up with a new theory call the heliocentric theory. This theory was that the sun is motionless in the center of the universe and the other planets revolved around the sun in order to Mercury, Venus, the Earth, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. The stars were also included in the solar system as well as the moon revolved only around the earth as well as the sun orbiting only around the earth which now explains the daily rotation of the earth on its axis and the journey of the earth around the sun each year.
He was a German astronomer and Mathematician. He agree with Copernicus's heliocentric theory and discovered that the planets orbit around the sun on a rotated elliptical motion with the sun at one focus of the ellipse rather than at the center.
He was a known founder of modern astronomy, which he formulated three famous laws of planetary motion. The first one is the orbits of the planets around the sun are elliptical; the planets don't move at a uniform speed in their orbits; and the time a planet take to make it's complete orbit is related to its distance from the sun. This helped prove the sun-centered theory of the universe.
He was an Italian astronomer, physicist and mathematician who was the first to make systematic observations of the heaven, the moon and stars through a perfected refracted telescope that he built on his own. He proved to Copernicus that he was correct.
He published discoveries in "Starry Messenger". This all started a new age in astronomy. He saw many series of discoveries such as rough surface mountains on the moon, the phases of Venus, Saturn, four moons revolving around Jupiter; the milky Way was made up of stars and the sun's dark spots. while he was discovering the solar system, he stated under his breath, "and yet it moves?" His greatest achievement was the elaboration and consolidation of the experimental method; formulated law of inertia that brought before the inquisition and forced the recant heliocentric. belief.
Galileo was a supporter of Copernicus's heliocentric theory but along with that, the Catholic Church abandoned the Copernican thesis and put Galileo on trail to admit that he and Copernicus were wrong. They declared it was a sin to teach others that the Earth didn't move and stood at the center of the universe and ended up imprisoning him.
He was an English Pioneer of the Ages of Reason, who was a mathematician and physicist. He published a book called, "Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy" which is also known as principia. He developed and used the scientific method during the Renaissance. He also invented and entire new kind of mathematics called calculus. In addition, he demonstrated the compound nature of what light while in the process laying the foundations of spectroscopy.
He did many experiments and made observations of objects in the physical world. One day he was observing the natural laws when an apple feel from a tree and bopped him on the head. That was when we discovered the law of gravity. Natural laws like gravity govern the universe. New ton came up with the idea that there is a force of attraction between objects that increases an object to move closer together. Newton's law of gravity keeps the planets within their orbits.
Another set of laws that newton discovered were several classical laws of motion such as the three laws of motion which govern the planetary bodies that doesn't go off in a straight line but continues in elliptical orbits around the sun, as well as the objects on earth. He wanted to understand the motion of objects and how these concepts of mass, acceleration and forces were related to each other.
In addition to laws of gravity and motion, Newton also formulated laws of universal gravitation and motion. These are laws that explain how objects move on Barth as well as outer space. He studied the behavior of light and built the first reflecting telescope.
He was an English politician and writer who believe to collect data, observe and draw conclusions. This was the foundation of the scientific method. He formulated the Scientific Method by using observations, experiments, hypotheses and math to prove theories. He contributed to the development better ways of obtaining knowledge about the world and formulated empircism. He formalized the empirical method into the general theory of inductive reasoning.
He was an English physician who discovered that the heart pumps blood though the body. He published his theories in a book called "An Anatomical Study of the Motion of the Heart and the Blood in Animals". Hieronymus Fabricius's teachings and went on to solve the riddle of what part the valves played in the circulation of blood through the body.
He was a Dutch naturalist, scientist and microscopist who invented the simple microscopes. He also learned to grind lenses. For the first time he observed and discovered bacteria, protozoa,spermatoza, rotifer, Hydra and Volvox, and also parthenogenesis in aphids. When he saw these, he said "wretched beasties".
He was a French scientist, philosopher and mathematician who doubted everything including his own existence by stating "I think, therefore I am". He took small steps to build a case. He wrote a book called "Discourse on Method" where he adopted three maxims to be able to act while he put all his ideas into doubt; which has been known as his "Provisional Morals".
He attemps to arrive at a fundamental set of principles that one can know as true without any doubt. To achieve this, he employs a method called hyerbolical/metaphyscial doubt, also sometimes referred to as methodological skepticism; he rejects any ideas that can be doubted, and then reestabllishes them in order to acquire a firm foundation for genuine knowledge.
one of his influences was in mathematics which is equally apparent. The Cartesian coordinate system was named after him. It has allowed a reference to a poin in space as a set of numbers, and allowed algebraic equations to be expressed as geometric shapes in a two dimensional coordinate system (and conversely, shapes to be described as equations).
In the Scientific Revolution, he is one of the important figures that had been described as an example of a genius.
He is a philosopher that hold the reason and observation of the natural world and natural religion, without the need for organized religion. It can be determined that the universe is the product of a creator. He believed that God was some kind of a "clock maker". He then wound up the clock (universal) setting the system in motion, but he didn't interfere or direct event after that. It was up to the people to make the best of their world.
He wrote a book called Leviathan. He believed that people was naturally bad, wicked and selfish. He came to terms that the people gave up their freedom for the rulers to have absolute power to establish peace and order. Once the people entered into such a contract they could not rebel even if the ruler was a tyrant. He supported absolute monarchy government that gave all power to a king or queen was the best for the people. He said, "If men are naturally in a state of war, why do they always carry arms and why do they have keys to lock their doors?"
He was an English philosopher and thought that people were neither good or bad and reasonable and cooperative. They have natural rights at birth to through life such as the right to life, liberty, and property that couldn't be taken away from them. The people have the right to overthrow bad government. People have the right of revolution, the right to overthrow the government. His ideas were found in the work called the Two Treatises on Government. He borrowed many of Thomas Jefferson's ideas from the Declaration of Independence; by saying that all men are created equal, and he altered the right of life, liberty and property to "the right of life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness".
Baron de Montesquieu
He was a French political philosopher. In the book he wrote was called Spirit of the Laws, he believed that the best way for government to preserve the liberty of the people is by separating power into three branches; King (Executive), Parliament (Legislative) and Courts (Judicial). Each branch should be equal in power and should provide a system of checks and balances. Checks and balance ensures that no one branch gained too much power. The U.S Constitution borrowed Montesquieu's ideas.
He was a philosopher who defended the freedom of thought and who wanted to end religion discrimination and called for economic and legal reforms. He attacked the absolutism of the French monarchy and was bitter against the Catholic Church. He thought the best government was a limited monarch who was an "Enlightened" monarch. He wrote Candide. He said, "I do not agree with a word you say but I will defend to the death your right to say it".
He was a French philosopher and writer who believed people in their natural state were basically good. If they were corrupted by the evils of society (civilization), then he believed they were a noble savage where it's middle of being completely ruled or completely wild, most optimistic view.
People would give up some of their freedom in favor of the "general will" or the decisions of the majority. Everyone has to accept the decisions of the majority. There was no minority has the right to overthrow that majority. He believed that all people were equal so all titles of nobility should be abolished. He said, "Man is born free and everywhere he is in chains". He wrote, The Social Contract.
He was a French philosopher who edited a huge 35 volume to cause "revolution in the minds of men to free them from prejudice". The encyclopedia included work that summarized all human knowledge up to that point in time and called it the encyclopedia. He hoped the encyclopedia would free people from prejudices and superstition. All the philosophers such as Voltaire, Rousseau, Montesquieu, and others contributed articles. The Catholic Church and government censors banned the encyclopedia but the ideas became known throughout Europe.
He was a Scottish economist who wrote "The Wealth of Nations". He was in support of the economy Laissez-Fair (leave it alone) by government. He also supported free trade which is also known as free market which means goods traded without any government restrictions and regulation tariffs. The economy runs by hidden moral laws that run by themselves with no government interfering at all. Government should let the natural law of supply and demand be determined.
The French meaning is "leave it alone" in a way for the government to not take part in the economy. An economy is best served when the government doesn't interfere but allows the natural economy to self-regulate according to the forces of supply and demand.
Mercantilism: Is the name historians apply to the economic practices. It is the prosperity of a nation depended on a plentiful supply of gold and silver. It also involves a great deal of government that interferences in the economy. A few reasons that in the economic system, the government regulates the economy to gain money, especially gold and silver from other businesses that are good exporters; export more than they import so you can gain more money from your rivals to get really rich; to obtain cheap goods, materials to benefit the mother country to impose taxes; the government strictly regulates the economy and discourages imports through the use of tariffs, customs duties.
Are European rulers who are impressed by the ideas of the Enlightenment and are attempted to improve social and economic conditions in their countries saw themselves as "enlightened monarchs." The new idea of ruling consisted of religious tolerance, condemnation of serfdom, equal punishments, and educational improvement, among others. The Enlightened monarchs used the new ideas to centralize their power by reducing the privileges of the nobles' power.
An Empress of Austria who managed to make administrative reforms that helped centralize the Austrian Empire to strengthen the power of the Habsburg state. She tried to put Enlightenment principles into practice. She passed laws to limit serfdom. She maintained her throne by giving Hungary Magyars prominence, reorganized army, promoted commerce and agriculture.
He is Maria Theresa's son who is the Enlightened Austrian King who attempts to centralize the government by saying, "I have made Philosophy the lawmaker of my empire; her logical applications are going to transform Austria". The changed that happened were the people were getting religious freedom, and abolish serfdom. He permits freedom of press, bans torture, and ends religious persecution and gives equality to the Jews and had limits to the Catholic Church. In addition, he orders peasants to be paid for their labor with cash. He did everything for his people, but they rebelled against him.
Catherine the Great
She was a true enlightened monarch. She became Queen of Russia, and invited Didepot to her court. She made the power more absolute and greatly increased the territory of the empire. She helped bring the western culture to Russia by importing musicians, architects, and intellectuals. She improved education, and local government. She also restricted torture and allowed for limited religious tolerance. She developed a deep fear of the peasantry and instated full serfdom on them. She spread serfdom to new territories like in the Ukraine. She worked towards territorial expansion and was very successful. She conquered the Turks and threatened the balance of power in Eastern Europe.
He was in the music age that was called classical. Bach was a German composer, organist, harpsichordist, violist, and violinist and also wrote many types of music, but he is perhaps best known for his religious music. He became an organist and chamber musician for the Duke of Saxe-Weimar. He was known for his organ compositions.
He was in the music age that was called classical. He played a mature musical style (many piano concertos. He was a prolific composer and wrote for many genres. Among his best works are his operas, the piano concertos, his symphonies, string quartets and string quintets. Mozart also wrote many volumes for solo piano, chamber music, masses and other religious music, dances, divertimenti, and other forms of light entertainment.
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