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three layers of the Earth



continent-sized slabs in which the Earth's crust and upper mantle are broken into

3 ways plates can move together by

past each other, toward each other, away from each other


a vibration or shaking of the Earth's crust


where most earthquakes occur, which is where crust along which rock move

what causes an earthquake?

the sudden build up and release of energy in rocks

How do many earthquakes happen?

where plates are moving past each other


the point where the movement of an earthquake first took place


the point on the surface right above the focus


an instrument that records earthquake waves

mercalli scale

measures the movement and the damage that the earthquake has caused

richter scale

measures the energy that is released during an earthquake


a mountain that forms when red-hot melted rock flows through a crack onto the earth's surface


melted rock inside the Earth


melted rock that reaches the Earth's surface


a rocky opening in which magma flows onto the surface through to form volcanic mountains

why don't volcanic mountains look the same?

because each type of eruption forms a different type of mountain

shield volcanoes

large mountains with gentle slopes

cinder cone volcanoes

small volcanoes made up of hardened lava chunks and have steep sides

composite volcanoes

mediun sized mountains with steep peaks and gently sloping sides

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