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Rotation vs. Revolution
-the difference is the location of the central axis
-outside=revolution (orbiting around another object or point in space)
-inside=rotation (turning around an axis that passes itself)
Theories of Formation
-Big Bang Theory: cosmic explosion
-Creation Theory: god
- Oscillating Universe Theory: expanding and contracting
-energy=hydrogen+helium (nuclear fusion)
-sunspots, solar flares. prominences
-layers: corona, photosphere, chromosphere
-only planet with divided solid crusts
-degree of tilt when Earth rotates: 23.5 (determines season)
Instant in time when the sun is directly overhead at the Tropic of Cancer (southern Winter Solstice) or at the Tropic of Caricorn (Southern Summer Solstice)
Instant in time when the sun is directly overhead at the equator (occurs twice a year in spring and Autumn) [when day and night are of equal length]
Southern Cross and Pointers
-a line through two diagonal points of the tip of the spoon, through handle, find midpoint of line and draw a line
-a line through bottom point of handle and point not on the spoon, line directly in the middle of true south
(point where the two lines meet)
-North Celestial Pole (0 degrees)
-South Celestial Pole (180 degrees)
*East (90 degrees) and West (270 degrees)
-Horizon (0-360 degrees from north)
*Stars SEEM to move from east to west
*Stars drop below horizon=set
An imaginary sphere of infinitely large radius with Earth as its centre enclosing the universe so that all celestial bodies appear to be projected onto its surface.
Motion of stars
-West to East
-Sun moves across the sky along the ecliptic against background stars (still present)
-Sun moves against a band of constellations called the Zodiac: Aries, Taurus, Gemini, Cancer, Leo, Virgo, Libra, Scorpio, Sagittarius, Capricorn, Aquarius and Pisces
1. Artic Circle 2. Tropic of Cancer 3. Equator 4. Tropic of Capricorn 5. Antartic Circle
-Phases= new moon, waxing crescent, first quarter, waxing gibbous, full moon, waning gibbous, waning crescent
-influences tides on Earth (tidal bulges on either side due to sun and moon=gravitational pull)
-Moon rises in east and sets in west
-as the tilted Earth orbits the sun, the sun's rays fall directly on different parts of the Earth at different times of the year
-Autumn, Winter, Spring, Summer
-Day length: depends on seasons and when the Earth moves into its shadow= night
Sunrise & Sunset
sunrise= moving into the Earth's shadow (appears as though the sun is setting in the west)
sunset= emerges from the Earth's shadow
A celestial body orbiting the sun that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity but has not cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals and is not a satellite. (Pluto is considered to be a dwarf planet)
A celestial body orbiting a star or stellar remnant that is massive enough to be rounded by its own gravity, is not massive enough to cause thermonuclear fusion, and has cleared its neighbouring region of planetesimals.
A small planeteary body in orbit around the sun, larger than a meteroid but smaller than a planet
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