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Biology 101, Chapter 5
Biology The Unity and Diversity of Life, 14th ed. Starr, C. Taggart Evers Starr, L. Ch. 5 The Ground Rules of Metabolism
Terms in this set (60)
The capacity to do work
energy of motion
stored energy. (objects are not moving, but have the capacity to do so)
first law of thermodynamics
The total amount of energy before and after every conversion is always the same; energy cannot be created or destroyed
during each conversion, energy is lost as what?
second law of thermodynamics
the tendency of entropy to increase (energy tends to spread out spontaneously)
a measure of how much the energy of a particular system has become dispersed
what is random molecular motion that is produced as entropy increases?
through the sun
how does energy flow into the biological world?
how is energy stored?
starting substances in a chemical reaction
ending substances in a chemical reaction
the minimum energy required to start a reaction
1. reactants have less free energy than the products
2. converts molecules with lower free energy to molecules with higher free energy
What kind of reaction is this?
Which reactions need enzymes: endergonic or exergonic?
Which reactions need energy: endergonic or exergonic?
1. reactants have more free energy than the products
2. converts molecules with higher free energy to molecules with lower free energy
What kind of reaction is this?
substances that influence bonds in a way that lowers the activation energy
1. can be re-used
2. recognize reactants and products and can catalyze reactions in both directions
3. have active sites
4. cannot make endergonic reactions happen spontaneously
areas that allow binding to specific substances
occurs when reactions overcome activation energy and run spontaneously
helping substrates get together,
orienting substrates in positions that favor reactions,
inducing a fit between enzymes and substrates,
shutting out water molecules that interfere with reactions
how do enzymes bring on the transition state?
enzymes are denatured at ___ temperatures
neutral, acidic (for digestive)
most enzymes in the human body function best at a ___ p.h., but some digestive enzymes work best at ___ p.h.
enzyme-mediated sequences of reactions
have regulatory sites where an inhibitor or activator binds, altering the enzyme's configuration
the end product inhibits an enzyme in the pathway
electron transfers between molecules
a molecule that accepts electrons is ___
the molecule that looses electrons is ___
metal ions or organic molecules that bind to many enzymes and make them more reactive
organic molecules that carry chemical groups, atoms, or electrons from one reaction to another in metabolic pathways
an important co-enzyme that functions in energy transfer
where is energy stored?
membrane protein that is on the surface
membrane protein that goes through the phospholipid bilayer
integral proteins can form ___ that allow other molecules to travel through the membrane
Channel proteins are also what?
hold cells together
distinguishes self from non-self
attachment sites for hormones or toxins
help move substances across the plasma membrane
a net directional movement of molecules
when there is no gradient, there is no net movement in any direction. molecules collide randomly.
allow molecules of a certain size to pass
the movement of water across membranes
relative concentrations of 2 solutions
a fluid that has high solute concentration
a fluid that has a low solute concentration
2 fluids with identical solute concentrations and are separated by a semipearmiable membrane
hypotonic to hypertionic
which direction does water move?
small, uncharged molecules
what kind of molecules can move across the cell membrane by diffusion/osmosis?
charged molecules, large molecules
what molecules can't move across the cell membrane without assistance (sometimes energy)?
gradients drive diffusion of a substance across a cell membrane through transport proteins
to move ions & large molecules across a membrane against a concentration gradient, special proteins are induced to change shape, but only with an energy boost from ATP
a vesicle moves to the cell's surface, and its membrane fuses with the plasma membrane. its contents are released to the surroundings.
particles outside of the cell are enclosed in small portions of the cell membrane. Vesicles are formed and move into the cytoplasm
The cell engulfs microorganism, debris, or food particles.
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