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-processing information into memory
-remember the term "encoding" by thinking of inputting codes into your brain

sensory memory

-the instantaneous and short recording of sensory information
-remember the term "sensory memory" by thinking of using your five sense to make short memories


-consciously repeating information to either encode it for storage, or maintain it in your conscious
-rehearsal of memory is a lot like rehearsal for band, a play, or choir; you try to improve through practice and repetition


-time saved when one is trying to relearn material for a second time
-remember the term "relearning" by remembering "re" is the second sound in the sequence "do, re, mi, fa, so, la, ti, do" from "the Sound of Music". Therefore, relearning is learning something for the second time

spacing effect

-tendency for improved long-term retention to occur through distributing studying over time instead of studying fewer times for longer
-no one likes homework, so remember to put spaces between your study sessions, not only will it help you from having lots of homework stress, but you'll actually remember the information better

visual encoding

-enoding pictures or images

acoustic encoding

-encoding sounds (particularly of words)
-"acoustic" makes me think of speakers, so if you can remember what encoding means, acoustic encoding is inputting sounds into your brain

semantic encoding

-encoding meanings
-when I wanted to learn the word "prestidigitation" I broke it down into pieces; the first part, "prest" reminds me of a magician saying "presto". The second part "digit" makes me think of my digits, or fingers. So now I think of a magician doing card tricks with their hands and it is easier for me to remember that prestidigitation means "sleight of hand"


-mental pictures; very powerful aid to effortful processing


-using memory aids to help remember information, particularly using imagery and organizational devices
-many people use the acrostic PEMDAS to remember the order of opperations


-organizing information into manageable groups


-dividing information by concepts, using headings, subheadings, etc.

absent mindedness

-not paying attention to details can distort encoding
-if you're absent minded during class might remember general concepts, but you most likely won't remember details

automatic processing

-unconsciously encoding of circumstantial information (ex: space, time, frequency, and well-learned information like the meaning of words in your native language)
-as you are reading this, you don't have to stop and think about what each word means because your brain can automatically process it

effortful processing

-conscious encoding; requires your attention
-remember how much effort it took you to memorize that formula, score that goal, or hit that note? I bet it required your attention, didn't it?

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