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281 terms

C C 306M Exam 4

STUDY
PLAY
syncope
fainting
Gr. cutting off of pneuma to the brain
sciatica
injury or pressure on sciatic nerve
coma
unresponsive to stimuli
Gr. deep sleep
vertigo
sensation that the room is spinning
Gr. vert (turn)
turning around
combining form for sensation
esthesi/o
esth/o
esthet/o
parasthesia
abnormal sensation
anasthesia
without sensation
allesthesia
different (allo) sensation
sensation on the opposite side of the body than where it should be percieved
kinesthetic
pertaining to the sensation of movement
algesthesia
sensation of pain
alg/o (pain)
telesthesia
feeling something at a distance
distance (tele)
like ESP
combining form for knowing
gnos/o
agnosia
unable to process
atopognosia
top/o (place)
if you are touched you don't know where you are being touched (ex: touched on arm, don't know if it is on shoulder, back, etc.)
astereognosis
stere/o (solid)
literally: without knowing somethings solid
medical: you can feel that you are touching something, but you can't feel it's shape. ex: you can't differentiate two different solid objects in your hand by touch alone
suffix for memory
-mnesia, -mnesis
hypermnesia
acute/excessive memory (like Sheldon)
hypomnesia
less than normal memory
cryoptomnesia
'hidden memory'
subconscious memory
paramnesia
abnormal memory
ex: you remember something that didn't really happen
amnesia
lack of memory
Lethe (synonym)-from Gr myth
Gr. Goddess of memory
Mnemosyne
Gr. Goddess Lethe
goddess of forgetfulness; also a river in the underworld-if you die you drink of the river and forget everything that happened in your life
aphasia
lack of speech
dysarthria
a condition of difficult articulation
arther/o can also mean articulation as in speech
dysphasia
difficult speech; usually associated with stroke/higher brain function
lex/o
word or phrase
bradylexia
slow reading
dyslexia
difficulty reading
log/o
word
logorrhea
'discharge of words'
talking without stop
usually due to drugs/psychosis
phas/o
speech
sensory aphasia
inability to process the hearing of speech
AKA receptive aphasia; will be different depending on which brain area is affected
lal/o
speech
laloplegia
'paralysis of speech'
usually a paralysis of the vocal chords
-paresis
slight paralysis
oroparesis
slight paralysis of the mouth
-plegia
paralysis
Gr. plege (to strike/stroke)
glossoplegia
complete paralysis of the tongue
palsy
paralysis
Bell's palsy
paralysis of the facial nerve; ex: drooping of face
hemiparesis
incomplete paralysis of half of the body
hemiplegia
complete paralysis of half of the body; usually caused by stroke (note: if right side brain stroke-left side paralysis)
paraplegia
paralysis of two limbs (legs); associated with spinal cord injuries
L2 and above = paralysis; below = sensory neurons
quadriplegia
paralysis of all four limbs
diplegia
paralysis of two limbs
monoplegia
paralysis of one limb
triplegia
paralysis of three limbs
cerebral palsy
more common cause of diplegia, monopledia, triplegia
palsy-paralysis
cerebral-associated with the cerebrum
usually congenital, non-progressive, and involves lesions (lesional-why there are weird paralyses)
concussion etymology
L. concussus (shaken violently)
emesis
vomiting
nausea history
comes from ships, seasickness (disease of sailors)
hematoma
tumor formed by blood; swelling of blood in an area
epidural hematoma
hematoma upon the derma
subdural hematoma
hematoma below the derma; usually associated with vessels (boxers that get knocked out, say they have no problems, then die the next day)
cephalalgia
head ache
grand mal seizure
'great bad'
violent, full body thrashing, etc.
tonic-clonic seizure
ton/o-tension
clon/o-disarray
full body violent tension, then disarray, etc.
absence seizure
fading out
petit mal
'little bad'
not so bad
epilepsy history
Gr. epilepsia (to seize upon)
people thought that when a seizure occurred the Gods were attacking them
Hippocrates 'On the Sacred Disease'
5th B.C.; has to do with disorders of seizure like movements
states that the disease is not caused by the gods, but by 'phlegm' (humor)
he believes that in utero babies lose phlegm, but if you don't get rid of it you get seizures
seizure - when cold phlegm hits warm blood, you get a violent seizure
Huntington's Chorea
Gr. choreia (dance)
ballistic type of movement
Chorea and Gr. chorus
Gr. chorus in dramas (plays) come out and dance/sing
chorus connects to audience (asks questions, explains things to the audience)
athetosis
Gr. athetos (unfixed, changeable)
writhing, snakelike movement
apraxia
Gr. praxis (action)
inability to perform an action
bradykinesia
Gr. kinesis (movement)
slow movement
akathisia
Gr. kathisis (sitting)
restless legs-person cannot keep their legs still while sitting
ataxia
Gr. taxis (order/coordination)
lack of coordinated movement
glioma
glio (glue)
tumor of the glia (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells)
meningioma
tumor of the membranes (dura mater, thia mater, etc.)
dementia
L. de +mens, mentis
collection of disease of higher brain function
literal definition myelomeningocele
pouching or hernia of the spinal cord membrane
spina bifida occulta
where the back of your spinus processes are not there on one or two levels
no big deal
meningocele
pouching of the membrane
myelomeningocele
pouching of membrane and spinal cord
poliomyelitis
think gray matter, cell bodies
acute anterior poliomyelitis
acute, front portion of spinal cord, inflammation of gray matter of spinal cord
polioencephalomeningomyelitis
inflammation of gray matter of brain, meninges, and spinal cord
polio
means GRAY
poliosis
gray hair
Galen and psychiatry
Galen thought that psychiatry should be brought into the realm of medicine, as the soul affects the body
psyche
lovesickness, rage
soma
body
melancholia lycanthropia
lycanthropia = werewolf
medicine: lycanthropia is a condition in which humans acted animal like (wolf-like)
melancholia: black-bile (Excessive black bile lead to this mental illness)
melancholia
black-bile
too much led to mental illness (according to antiquity)
four temperaments
choleric
melancholic
phlegmatic
sanguine
temperamentum
L. mixture
choleric
too much yellow bile
now: associated with people easily agitated
melancholic
black-bile
now: depressed
phlegmatic
lots of phlegm
lethargic
sanguine
hot blood
hypochondriasis
under-cartilage
associated with too much black bile (mental illness)
excessively focused on being sick
sthen/o
strength
angiosthenia
strength (pressure) in the vessel
hypersthenic
excessively strong
myasthenia gravis
muscle weakness
the anatomy of melancholy
book describing mental illness, melancholy bc all mental illness is associated with black bile
written by Robert Burton
mental illness and astrology
the alignment of the stars can change people
anhedonia
lack of pleasure
apathy
lack of emotion
euphoria
excessive happiness; elation
phor-to bear
dysthymia
thym/o-emotion
condition of bad emotion
low level depression that lasts over 2 years
thym/o
soul, seat of emotion
hedon/o
pleasure
path/o
suffering, passion, emotion
delusion
L. deludere
to decieve
delirium
L. de (away from)+lira (furrow) [off the road]
deviant behavior; temporary being out of your mind
hallucination
L. halucinari
to wander in mind, to dream
dementia
de (out of)+mens (mind) nominative
mentis = genitive
progressive memory condition
psych/o
Gr. psyche-soul
mind
psychosis
catatonic state, delusional, hallucinations, etc.
phren/o
diaphragm or ming
Gr. phren-midriff
believed midriff was seat of emotion and thought
schizophrenia
schizo-split
phrenia-mind
ment/a
L. mens-thought
no/o
Gr. nous-intellect
today: mind
paranoia
para-abnormal
no-mind
a-condition
neur/o
Gr. neuron, nerve, sinew
neurosis
neuro-nervous system
is-condition of
nar/o
sleep, stupor
narcotic
medication that puts you in a stupor
narcolepsy
sleep seizure
lepdy-seizure
somn/o
sleep
somnambulism
sleep walking
hypn/o
hypnosis, sleep, sleep inducing
hypnopompic
pompic-pompeii: procession
dream just when you're exiting sleep
hypnagogic
gogic-to lead into
having visions before you go into deep sleep
hypnos
god of deep sleep (pleasant)
thanatos
god of a good death
oneiroi
dreams; little creatures that fly out from erabus and come into our minds and form our dreams
under the guidance of morpheus
thanat/o
death as a concept
oneir/o
dreams
oneiric medicine
ancient medical diagnosis: dr. in antiquity could use dreams to determine what was wrong with the pt (soul is active when you're asleep)
medicine of dreams
think Freud; greek myths used to describe mental conditions (world-view/consciousness being revealed)
asclepius
stick with snake (emblem of medicine-rod of asclepius)
god of medicine
they would go to his temple, fall asleep, and he would either heal you or tell you in a dream what to do to get better
kadusis
heralds wand, what hermes carries
its two snakes and wings
we screwed up the medical symbol
mania
symptom
manic depression
mania state and depressed state
ideation
pervasive thought
maenad
worshiper of dionysus
went into excited, agitated state (mania)
pentheus
cousin of dionysus, says we aren't going to worship dionysus bc hes a new god
dionysus turns pentheus into an animal, his mother and sisters tear him limb from limb
-mania
excessive devotion to something
hirsutism
L. hirsutus
covered with hair, rough shaggy
adrenal virilism
L. virilis-of a man, manly, male
exophthalamos/exophthalamus
eye that protrudes out of the body
caused by hyperthyroidism (grave's disease)
Cushing's syndrome
hyperadrenocorticism
condition of excessive adrenocortotropin (stimulation of the adrenal cortex)
Grave's disease
hyperthyroidism
Hyperinsulinism
associated with pancreas; over production of insulin
herodotus
natron and mummification, uroscopy
what is a fundamental sign which distinguishes diabetes mellitus (DM) from diabetes insipidus (DI)
taste (of urine)
diabetes
Gr. passing through, ie urine
mellitus
L. mellitus
honey, sweet
insipidus
L. tasteless
in- 'not' + sapidus 'tasty'
-liberin
releasing factor, to release a hormone
thyroliberin
releases thymotropin
-tropin
stimulates
thymotropin
literally, stimulates the thyroid
-statin
standing, stops, inhibits release of
thyrostatin
inhibits thyroliberin
xerostomia
dry mouth
tachypnea
fast breathing
emesis
vomiting
cephalagia
headache
-tocin
contractions
toc: to give birth
oxytocin
bring on stronger contractions
-lactin
milk
prolactin
stimulating milk production in mammary glands
-pressin
to press
vasopressin
blood pressure constricts the arteries
-poietin
to form or make
erythropoietin
stimulates production of RBCs
-agon, -agogue
to lead or convey
glucagon
hormone that leads or conveys glucose
acromegaly
acro 'topmost, or extremety'
megaly 'condition of enlargement'
condition of enlargement of usually hands and feet
caused by excessive growth hormone
-gen
to produce or create
estrogen
creates estro-drive
estrus cycle
when a female mammal is in heat
socrates
always questioning whether people know what they think that they knew
sterol
Gr. steros (solid)
L. oleum (oil)
progesterone
pro-before
gest-to give birth
gigantism and gigantomachy (history)
gr. giants were sons of Gaia
hyperglycemia
excessive sugar in the blood
polyuria
frequent urination
polydipsia
excessive thirst
calc/i
calcium
L. calx 'lime'
kal/i
potassium
L. kalium 'potash'
machy
war
natr/o
sodium
l.L.natrium=Arabic natrun= gr. Nitron= Egyptian-ntr
herodotus
'father of history'
three different methods egyptians used to embalm bodies
natrium was used to dry out the bodies
john hunter
'father of medicine' super dedicated
self-infects with syphilis to chart symptoms (to separate from gonnhorhea)
Achilles ruptures: cuts animals to determine rate of healing, then charts himself
charles byrne and john hunter
charles byrne had gigantism
he was also an alcoholic
on his death bed, he knows John Hunter wants his body so he says that when he dies he wants to be buried at sea so John Hunter couldn't get it
John Hunter paid the people who carried the casket out to get his body
dwarfism
people of short stature
different types: camptomelic, mesomelic, cretenism
cretenism
associated with hypothyroidism
congenital
mental retardation
potbelly
term: comes from 'christian-as in people' Englishman mishears and says 'cretin'
chondroaplasia, achondroplasia
lack of formation of cartilage on long bones
short limbs, long torso
camptomelic, campsia
campto-bent
melo-limb
type of dwarfism with bent limbs
mesomelic
meso-partial
melo-limb
Myxedema
myx/muco-mucus
oidema- swelling
associated with hypothyroidism
mucus swelling, waxy and hard
goiter
L. guttur 'throat'
swollen throat, due to hyper or hypothyroidism
cerebr/o
cerebrum
L. for brain
cerebral cortex
outer portion of cerebrum
cortic/o
cortex
L. rind
cerebell/o
cerebellum
small brain
encephal/o
entire brain
parencephalia
abnormal brain formation
anencephalus
Neural tube defect that occurs when the cephalic end of the neural tube fails to close. This results in missing a major part of the brain, skull and scalp. Congenital condition meaning "no brain"
encephalomere
atrophy of a part of the brain
prosencephalon
forebrain
mesencephalon
midbrain
rhombencephalon
hindbrain
mening/o, meningi/o
meninges, membrane
combining forms for the nervous system
meningomalacia
abnormal softening of the meninges
spinal meningitis
inflammation of the spinal meninges
meningoencephalomyelitis
inflammation of the meninges, brain, and spinal cord
meninx
pl. meninges
Gr. membrane
pachymeninges
Thick, tough meninges. The Dura mater, the harder thicker layer
leptomeninges
Collective term for the inner coverings of the brain (i.e., pia and arachnoid mater).
arachne and minerva
Gr myth-arachne can weave really well, challenges minerva, gets turned into a spider
intercerebral
between the brain hemispheres
structures of the cerebrum
lobe, gyrus, fissure, sulcus
cerebellifugal
moving away from the cerebellum
cerebellipetal
moving towards the cerebellum
fugal
L. fugere
to flee
petal
L. petere
to seek
efferent
conducting outward, away from
afferent
bringing toward or into
thalam/o
thalamus (a room)
thalamocortical
pertaining to the cortex and thalamus of the cerebrum
corpus collosum
connects the left & right hemispheres
corpus
Corporis, N, body
hippocampus
a complex neural structure (shaped like a sea horse) consisting of gray matter and located on the floor of each lateral ventricle
pons
bridge
ponti-
bridge
-pontine
pertaining to bridges
pontifex maximus
the term means "the greatest bridge-builder"; title for emperors and, later, the pope.
ancient greek brainmapping
Galen wasn't the first to map the brain-it was nemesius of emesa
nemesius of emesa
on the nature of man
mapped brain into three regions:
frontal cavities: sensation and imagination
central cavity: intellect and thought
posterior cavity: memory
leonardo's ventricles
thought there were 3 ventricles
'I want to prove that God created the human body'
homo-
same
homin-, homi-, homo
human being
gnos/o
knowing
agnosia
Inability to recognize objects
esthesi/o
sensation
paresthesia
A skin sensation, such as burning, prickling, itching, or tingling, with no apparent physical cause.
sthen/o
strength
angiosthenia
strength of vessels; tension
myasthenia gravis
a chronic progressive disease characterized by chronic fatigue and muscular weakness (especially in the face and neck)
-mnesia
memory
paramnesia
(psychiatry) a disorder of memory in which dreams or fantasies are confused with reality
amnesia
partial or total loss of memory
stere/o
3 dimensional solid
astereognosis
a loss of the ability to recognize objects by handling them
top/o
place
atopognosia
Inability to localize where a sensation is coming from
'without knowing a place'
dendr/o, -dentrite, dendron
dendrites
radicul/o
L. root
nerve root
ram/i
L. ramus: branch
gangli/o
Gr. knot
ganglion
mass of nervous tissue/any tissue
aponeurotic mass
Mass on the wrist, knot on the wrist. Pathologically nothing to do with the nerves
plexus
L. plexus
braided, large, interlacing network of nerves
-mania
obsession with
pyromania
obsessed with fire
necromania
facination with dead bodies
thanatomania
abnormal attraction to and fascination with death and suicide
egomania
an intense and irresistible love for yourself and concern for your own needs
-philia
attraction for
pyrophilia
arousal/ attraction to fire
scopophilia
Greek term for "love of looking" meaning that one derives pleasure from looking.
autophilia
narcissism
agoraphobia
a morbid fear of open spaces (as fear of being caught alone in some public place)
phobia
an anxiety disorder characterized by extreme and irrational fear of simple things or social situations
phobos
greek god of fear
acrophobia
a morbid fear of great heights
ataxophobia
Fear of disorder or untidiness.
ergophobia
fear of work
orex
appetite
Gr. orexis
bulimia
Gr. boulemia
ravenous hunger
anorexia
lack of appetite
anorexia nervosa
acttually disorder
bulimia nervosa
actual disorder
xenorexia
appetite for things not fit for eating, such as sand, paint, clay, cotton
hyperorexia
Compulsive overeating, increased appetite
orthorexia nervosa
Obsessive Compulsion to eat only "pure" foods