are eucaryotic organisms that, together with algae, are classified in the second kingdom of the five kingdom system of classification.
Protozoal have a variety of eucaryotic structures and organells including
cell membranes, nuclei, endoplasmic reticulem, mitochondria, golgi bodies, lysosomes, centrioles, and food vacuoles.
Protozoa have no
chlorphyll and therefore cannot make their own food by phtosynthesis. some ingest whole algae, yeasts, bacteria, and smaller protozoans, others live on dead and ecaying organic matter.
some flagellates and ciliates ingest food through a primitive moruth or opening (called cytostome)
Pathogenic parasitic protozoa:
cause malaria, giardiasis, african sleeping sickness, and amebic dysentery.
protozoa coexist wiith the host as a mutualistic symbiotic relationship
a relationship in which both organisms benefit. Example termines and the protozoa in the intestenines allows them to digest wood w/o it they could not digest wood.
Protoza are classified taxonomically by their mode of locomotion.
some move by pseudopodia, others by flagella, others cilia, and some are nonmotile.
false feet, (amebas move by pseudopodia)AMEBAE SUCH AS ACANTHAMOEBA, AND NAEGLERIA SPP. MOVE BY PSEUDOPODIA
first extends a pseudopodium in the direction in the ameba intends to move, and then the rest of the cell slowly flows into it. (Ameboid movement)
Ameba ingests a particle by
surrounding the particle with pseudopodia, which then fuse together: (phagocytosis)
such as Balantidium, parmecium, stentor, and vorticella spp., move about by means of large numbers of hairlike cilia on their surfaces.
such as Trypanosoma, trichomonas, and giardia spp., move my means of whiplike flagella
Sporozoan protozoa human infections
Babesia, cryposporidium, cyclospora, plasmodium, and toxoplasma spp. are examples of sporozoan protozoa that cause human infections.
are in a kingdom all by themselves-the kingdom Fungi. Fungi are Ugiquous, found almost everywhere on earth
are important in the production of cheeses, beer, wine, and other foods, as well as certain drug. and antibiotics.
Fungi are Garbage disposals "Saprophytes"
by secreting digestive enzymes into dead plant and animal matter, they decompose this material into absorbable nutrients for themseles and other living organisms.
Long, thin, intertwined, cytoplasmic filaments that make up a mould colony (mycelium)
Fungal spores are resistant structures
due to being carried great distances by wind. They are resistant to heat, cold, acids, bases, and other chemicals. many people allergic to fungal spores.
some yeasts, some fungi that cause plant diseases, and the large "fleshy fungi" lives in woods, mushrooms, toadstools, puffballs,
has no mode of sexual reproduction, Fungi imperfecti, medically important moulds such as aspergillus and pencillium
bakers yeast, ferments sugar to alchol under anaeroic conditions. This yeast breaks down sugar to carbon dioxide and water.