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Chapter 5, microbiology

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Protozoa
are eucaryotic organisms that, together with algae, are classified in the second kingdom of the five kingdom system of classification.
Most protozoa are:
single-celled free-living microorgansims.
Protozoal have a variety of eucaryotic structures and organells including
cell membranes, nuclei, endoplasmic reticulem, mitochondria, golgi bodies, lysosomes, centrioles, and food vacuoles.
Protozoa have no
chlorphyll and therefore cannot make their own food by phtosynthesis. some ingest whole algae, yeasts, bacteria, and smaller protozoans, others live on dead and ecaying organic matter.
Protozoa
no cell walls
Paramecium and vorticella spp. are
examples of free living pond protozoa
Cytostome
some flagellates and ciliates ingest food through a primitive moruth or opening (called cytostome)
contactile vacuole
pumps water out of the cell of pond water protozoa
life cycle of protozoan
2 stages: a motile trophozoite stage and a nonmotile cyst stage.
Trophozoite
is the motile, feeding, dividing stage in a protozoan's life cycle
Cyst
is the nonmotile, dormant, survival stage.
Parasitic protozoa:
break down and absorb nurtients from the body of the host in which they live
Pathogenic parasitic protozoa:
cause malaria, giardiasis, african sleeping sickness, and amebic dysentery.
protozoa coexist wiith the host as a mutualistic symbiotic relationship
a relationship in which both organisms benefit. Example termines and the protozoa in the intestenines allows them to digest wood w/o it they could not digest wood.
Protoza are classified taxonomically by their mode of locomotion.
some move by pseudopodia, others by flagella, others cilia, and some are nonmotile.
Pseudopodia
false feet, (amebas move by pseudopodia)AMEBAE SUCH AS ACANTHAMOEBA, AND NAEGLERIA SPP. MOVE BY PSEUDOPODIA
Ameba
first extends a pseudopodium in the direction in the ameba intends to move, and then the rest of the cell slowly flows into it. (Ameboid movement)
Ameba ingests a particle by
surrounding the particle with pseudopodia, which then fuse together: (phagocytosis)
Ciliates
such as Balantidium, parmecium, stentor, and vorticella spp., move about by means of large numbers of hairlike cilia on their surfaces.
Flagellated protozoa
such as Trypanosoma, trichomonas, and giardia spp., move my means of whiplike flagella
B Coli
The only ciliated protozoan that causes human disease. "Diarrheal disease aka balantidiasis"
Sporozoan protozoa human infections
Babesia, cryposporidium, cyclospora, plasmodium, and toxoplasma spp. are examples of sporozoan protozoa that cause human infections.
Mycology
the study of fungi
Fungi
are in a kingdom all by themselves-the kingdom Fungi. Fungi are Ugiquous, found almost everywhere on earth
Beneficial fungi
are important in the production of cheeses, beer, wine, and other foods, as well as certain drug. and antibiotics.
Fungi are Garbage disposals "Saprophytes"
by secreting digestive enzymes into dead plant and animal matter, they decompose this material into absorbable nutrients for themseles and other living organisms.
Neither algae nor fungi are plants.
Algae are photosynthetic, but fungi are not.
Yeasts are unicellular, whereas mould are multicellular.
...
Hyphae "division"
Long, thin, intertwined, cytoplasmic filaments that make up a mould colony (mycelium)
Bacteria is procaryotic
wheras fungi are eucaryotic
septate hyphae
the cytoplasm within the hypha is divided into cells by cross-walls or septa
aseptate hyphae
the cytoplasm within the hypha is not divided into cells; no septa
aerial hyphae
above ground
vegetative hyphae
below ground
fungal cells reproduce by
budding, hyphal extension, or the formation of spores
2 categories of fungal spores
1.sexual spores 2 asexual spores
conidia
asexual fungal spores
sexual spores produced by
fusion of two gametes
Fungal spores are resistant structures
due to being carried great distances by wind. They are resistant to heat, cold, acids, bases, and other chemicals. many people allergic to fungal spores.
classification of fungi into 5 phyla is
based on their mode of sexual reproduction.
zygmycotina
lower fungi, the common bread moulds and other fungi that cause food spoilage.
chytridiomycotina
not true fungi, live in water and soil "water moulds"
Ascomycotina
higher fungi, include certain yeasts, and some fungi that cause plant diseases
Basidiomycotina
some yeasts, some fungi that cause plant diseases, and the large "fleshy fungi" lives in woods, mushrooms, toadstools, puffballs,
Deuteromycotina
has no mode of sexual reproduction, Fungi imperfecti, medically important moulds such as aspergillus and pencillium
yeast
are eucaryotic microscopic single-celled organisms that usually reproduce by budding
pseudohypha
resembles a hypha but is not a hypha
yeast is found in
soil and water and the skins of fruits and vegies. wine, beer and alcoholic bev.
saccharomyces cerevisiae
bakers yeast, ferments sugar to alchol under anaeroic conditions. This yeast breaks down sugar to carbon dioxide and water.
moulds
are often seen in water and soil and on food. they grow in the form of cytoplasmic filaments or hyphae that make up the mycelium of the mould.