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are eucaryotic organisms that, together with algae, are classified in the second kingdom of the five kingdom system of classification.

Most protozoa are:

single-celled free-living microorgansims.

Protozoal have a variety of eucaryotic structures and organells including

cell membranes, nuclei, endoplasmic reticulem, mitochondria, golgi bodies, lysosomes, centrioles, and food vacuoles.

Protozoa have no

chlorphyll and therefore cannot make their own food by phtosynthesis. some ingest whole algae, yeasts, bacteria, and smaller protozoans, others live on dead and ecaying organic matter.


no cell walls

Paramecium and vorticella spp. are

examples of free living pond protozoa


some flagellates and ciliates ingest food through a primitive moruth or opening (called cytostome)

contactile vacuole

pumps water out of the cell of pond water protozoa

life cycle of protozoan

2 stages: a motile trophozoite stage and a nonmotile cyst stage.


is the motile, feeding, dividing stage in a protozoan's life cycle


is the nonmotile, dormant, survival stage.

Parasitic protozoa:

break down and absorb nurtients from the body of the host in which they live

Pathogenic parasitic protozoa:

cause malaria, giardiasis, african sleeping sickness, and amebic dysentery.

protozoa coexist wiith the host as a mutualistic symbiotic relationship

a relationship in which both organisms benefit. Example termines and the protozoa in the intestenines allows them to digest wood w/o it they could not digest wood.

Protoza are classified taxonomically by their mode of locomotion.

some move by pseudopodia, others by flagella, others cilia, and some are nonmotile.




first extends a pseudopodium in the direction in the ameba intends to move, and then the rest of the cell slowly flows into it. (Ameboid movement)

Ameba ingests a particle by

surrounding the particle with pseudopodia, which then fuse together: (phagocytosis)


such as Balantidium, parmecium, stentor, and vorticella spp., move about by means of large numbers of hairlike cilia on their surfaces.

Flagellated protozoa

such as Trypanosoma, trichomonas, and giardia spp., move my means of whiplike flagella

B Coli

The only ciliated protozoan that causes human disease. "Diarrheal disease aka balantidiasis"

Sporozoan protozoa human infections

Babesia, cryposporidium, cyclospora, plasmodium, and toxoplasma spp. are examples of sporozoan protozoa that cause human infections.


the study of fungi


are in a kingdom all by themselves-the kingdom Fungi. Fungi are Ugiquous, found almost everywhere on earth

Beneficial fungi

are important in the production of cheeses, beer, wine, and other foods, as well as certain drug. and antibiotics.

Fungi are Garbage disposals "Saprophytes"

by secreting digestive enzymes into dead plant and animal matter, they decompose this material into absorbable nutrients for themseles and other living organisms.

Neither algae nor fungi are plants.

Algae are photosynthetic, but fungi are not.

Yeasts are unicellular, whereas mould are multicellular.


Hyphae "division"

Long, thin, intertwined, cytoplasmic filaments that make up a mould colony (mycelium)

Bacteria is procaryotic

wheras fungi are eucaryotic

septate hyphae

the cytoplasm within the hypha is divided into cells by cross-walls or septa

aseptate hyphae

the cytoplasm within the hypha is not divided into cells; no septa

aerial hyphae

above ground

vegetative hyphae

below ground

fungal cells reproduce by

budding, hyphal extension, or the formation of spores

2 categories of fungal spores

1.sexual spores 2 asexual spores


asexual fungal spores

sexual spores produced by

fusion of two gametes

Fungal spores are resistant structures

due to being carried great distances by wind. They are resistant to heat, cold, acids, bases, and other chemicals. many people allergic to fungal spores.

classification of fungi into 5 phyla is

based on their mode of sexual reproduction.


lower fungi, the common bread moulds and other fungi that cause food spoilage.


not true fungi, live in water and soil "water moulds"


higher fungi, include certain yeasts, and some fungi that cause plant diseases


some yeasts, some fungi that cause plant diseases, and the large "fleshy fungi" lives in woods, mushrooms, toadstools, puffballs,


has no mode of sexual reproduction, Fungi imperfecti, medically important moulds such as aspergillus and pencillium


are eucaryotic microscopic single-celled organisms that usually reproduce by budding


resembles a hypha but is not a hypha

yeast is found in

soil and water and the skins of fruits and vegies. wine, beer and alcoholic bev.

saccharomyces cerevisiae

bakers yeast, ferments sugar to alchol under anaeroic conditions. This yeast breaks down sugar to carbon dioxide and water.


are often seen in water and soil and on food. they grow in the form of cytoplasmic filaments or hyphae that make up the mycelium of the mould.

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