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62 terms

psych chapter 7: memory

STUDY
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encoding
putting coded information into memory
storage
maintaining coded information in memory
retrieval
recovering information from memory stores
attention
the process of focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events
prospective memory
involves remembering to perform actions in the future
retrospective memory
involves remembering events from the past or previously learned information
transfer appropriate processing
the initial processing of information is similar to the type of processing required by the subsequent measure of retention
pdp models/ connectionist models
assumes that cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks
misinformation effects
occurs when participants' recall of event they witnesses is altered by introducing postevent information
levels of processing theory
a theory that proposes that deeper levels of processing result in longer lasting memory codes
elaboration
involves linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding
dual coding theory
a theory that memory is enhanced by forming both semantic and visual codes since either can lead to recall
sensory memory
preserves information in the original sensory form for a very brief time
short term memory
a limited capacity memory store that can maintain unrehearsed information for 20 to 30 seconds
rehearsal
the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about new information
chunking
a group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit
long term memory
an unlimited capacity memory store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time
flashbulb memories
unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events
serial position effect
occurs when subjects show better recall of items at the beginning and end of a list than for items in the middle
declarative memory system
memory for factual information
mnemonic devices
strategies for enhancing memory
episodic memory system
memory made up of chronological or temporally dated, recollections of personal experiences
semantic memory system
memory that contains general knowledge that is not tied to the time when the information was learned
semantic networks
these consist of concepts joined together by links that show how the concepts are related
long term potentiation
a long lasting increase in neural excitability at synapses along a specific neural pathway
schema
an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or sequence of events
hindsight bias/ script
the attempt to mold our interpretation of the past to fit how it actually turned out
tip of the tongue phenomena
a temporary inhability to remember something you know accompanied by the feeling that it's just out of reach
forgetting curve
a curve graphing retention and forgetting over time
retention
the proportion of material remembered
recall
the ability to remember information without any cues [essay]
recognition
requires the selection of previously learned information from an array of options [mc]
relearning
requires the memorization of information a second time to determine how much time or effort is saved
decay theory
attributes forgetting to the impermanence of memory storage
interference theory
attributes forgetting to competition from other material
retroactive interference
occurs when new information impairs the retention of previously learned information [ski snowboard]
proactive interference
occurs when previously learned information impairs the retention of new information
encoding specificity principle
states that the value of a retrieval cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code
repression/ motivated forgetting
involves purposeful suppression of memories
consolidation
a theoretical process involving the gradual conversion of information into durable memory codes stored in long term memory
retrograde amnesia
the loss of memory for events that occurred prior to a brain injury
anterograde amnesia
the loss of memory for events that occur after a brain injury
overlearning
the continued rehearsal of material after it has apparently been mastered
link method
involves forming a mental image of items to be remembered in a way that connects them together
method of loci
a mnemonic device that involves taking an imaginary walk along a familiar path
conceptual hierarchy
a multi level classification system based on common properties among items
self referent encoding
the process of deciding how or whether information is personally relevant
source monitoring
the process of making attributions about the origins of memories
reality monitoring
the process of deciding whether memories are based on external or internal sources
source monitoring error
an error that occurs when a memory derived from one source is attributed to another
non declarative memory system
another term for the procedural memory system which houses memory for actions, skills, and operations
craik/ lockhart
levels of processing
baddeley
working memory
johnson
source and reality monitoring
loftus
reconstructive nature of memory can distort eyewitness testimony
ebbinghaus
forgetting curve
tulving
encoding specificity principle
miller
chunking in short term memory
milner
hm case
bartlett
experimentally demonstrated the reconstructive nature of memory
kandel
reflex learning in the sea slub produces changes in the strength of specific synaptic connections
thompson
specific memories may depend on localized neural circuits in the brain