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putting coded information into memory


maintaining coded information in memory


recovering information from memory stores


the process of focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or events

prospective memory

involves remembering to perform actions in the future

retrospective memory

involves remembering events from the past or previously learned information

transfer appropriate processing

the initial processing of information is similar to the type of processing required by the subsequent measure of retention

pdp models/ connectionist models

assumes that cognitive processes depend on patterns of activation in highly interconnected computational networks that resemble neural networks

misinformation effects

occurs when participants' recall of event they witnesses is altered by introducing postevent information

levels of processing theory

a theory that proposes that deeper levels of processing result in longer lasting memory codes


involves linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding

dual coding theory

a theory that memory is enhanced by forming both semantic and visual codes since either can lead to recall

sensory memory

preserves information in the original sensory form for a very brief time

short term memory

a limited capacity memory store that can maintain unrehearsed information for 20 to 30 seconds


the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about new information


a group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit

long term memory

an unlimited capacity memory store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time

flashbulb memories

unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events

serial position effect

occurs when subjects show better recall of items at the beginning and end of a list than for items in the middle

declarative memory system

memory for factual information

mnemonic devices

strategies for enhancing memory

episodic memory system

memory made up of chronological or temporally dated, recollections of personal experiences

semantic memory system

memory that contains general knowledge that is not tied to the time when the information was learned

semantic networks

these consist of concepts joined together by links that show how the concepts are related

long term potentiation

a long lasting increase in neural excitability at synapses along a specific neural pathway


an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or sequence of events

hindsight bias/ script

the attempt to mold our interpretation of the past to fit how it actually turned out

tip of the tongue phenomena

a temporary inhability to remember something you know accompanied by the feeling that it's just out of reach

forgetting curve

a curve graphing retention and forgetting over time


the proportion of material remembered


the ability to remember information without any cues [essay]


requires the selection of previously learned information from an array of options [mc]


requires the memorization of information a second time to determine how much time or effort is saved

decay theory

attributes forgetting to the impermanence of memory storage

interference theory

attributes forgetting to competition from other material

retroactive interference

occurs when new information impairs the retention of previously learned information [ski snowboard]

proactive interference

occurs when previously learned information impairs the retention of new information

encoding specificity principle

states that the value of a retrieval cue depends on how well it corresponds to the memory code

repression/ motivated forgetting

involves purposeful suppression of memories


a theoretical process involving the gradual conversion of information into durable memory codes stored in long term memory

retrograde amnesia

the loss of memory for events that occurred prior to a brain injury

anterograde amnesia

the loss of memory for events that occur after a brain injury


the continued rehearsal of material after it has apparently been mastered

link method

involves forming a mental image of items to be remembered in a way that connects them together

method of loci

a mnemonic device that involves taking an imaginary walk along a familiar path

conceptual hierarchy

a multi level classification system based on common properties among items

self referent encoding

the process of deciding how or whether information is personally relevant

source monitoring

the process of making attributions about the origins of memories

reality monitoring

the process of deciding whether memories are based on external or internal sources

source monitoring error

an error that occurs when a memory derived from one source is attributed to another

non declarative memory system

another term for the procedural memory system which houses memory for actions, skills, and operations

craik/ lockhart

levels of processing


working memory


source and reality monitoring


reconstructive nature of memory can distort eyewitness testimony


forgetting curve


encoding specificity principle


chunking in short term memory


hm case


experimentally demonstrated the reconstructive nature of memory


reflex learning in the sea slub produces changes in the strength of specific synaptic connections


specific memories may depend on localized neural circuits in the brain

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